Ancient-Egypt

Ancient Egypt Timeline

Egypt has had many rulers and many time periods. To get an overall picture of Ancient Egypt we have put together a timeline. The timeline has been separated into 12 periods.

Early Dynastic Period (3032 - 2707 B.C)
Dynasty
Rulers
Time Ruled (B.C) Unless Noted
1st Dynasty (3032-2853 B.C.)





3032-3000
2999-2952
2952-2939
2939-2882
2892-2886
2886-2878
2878-2853
2nd Dynasty 2853-2707 B.C.







Hetepsekhemwy
Reneb
Nynetjer
Wenegnebti
Sekhemib
Neferkare
NeferKasokar
Hudjefa
Khasekhemwy
2853-2825
2825-2810
2810-2767
2767-2760
2760-2749
2749-2744
2744-2736
2736-2734
2734-2707
Nomadic Tribes begin settling along the Nile. Agriculture and cattle are the prime functions. The invention of script and a calendar are evident. Lower and Upper Egypt is formed and each of these areas develop distinct political ideologies. During this time, pharaohs were regarded as god-like kings.


Old Kingdom (2707 - 2170 B.C)
Dynasty
Rulers
Time Ruled (B.C) Unless Noted
3rd Dynasty 2707-2639 B.C.

Sanakhte
Djoser
Huni
2707-2690
2690-2670
2663-2639
Evidence of the first monumental stone building – Step Pyramid in Saqqara is erected under Djoser’s rule.
4th Dynasty 2639-2506 B.C.




Snefru
Cheops (Khufu)
Djedefre
Chephren (Khafre)
Mycerinus (Menkaure)
Shepseskaf
2639-2604
2604-2581
2581-2572
2572-2546
2539-2511
2511-2506
Several pyramids are built during this dynasty; The Bent Pyramid at Dahshur, the Giza pyramids and also the Sphinx. This was a time of stability for the citizens of Egypt. It appears that the fine arts flourished and hieroglyphs (written language) was being used quite extensively by the elite.
5th Dynasty 2504-2347 B.C.







Userkaf
Sahure
Neferirkare
Shepseskare
Neferefre
Niuserre
Menkauhor
Djedkare
Unas
2504-2496
2496-2483
2483-2463
2463-2456
2456-2445
2445-2414
2414-2405
2405-2367
2367-2347
Religious text now begins to be inscribed in the interior of pyramids. In addition, the cult of the sun god begins to grow. The growth of the sun god cult starts to diminish the god-like status of the pharaohs.
6th Dynasty 2347-2216 B.C.






Teti
Userkare
Pepi I
Merenre
(Nemtyemsaf)
Pepi II
Nemtyemsaf II
Nitkoris
2347-2337
2337-2335
2335-2285
2285-2279

2279-2219
2219-2218
2218-2216
The nobility begins to expand and by the end of this era they have become extremely independent. The Old Kingdom begins to dissolve into rival Baronies.
7th – 8th Dynasties 2216-2170 B.C.
17 kings

2216-2170

Little is known of major events during this time.


First Intermediate Period (2170-2020 B.C.)
Dynasty
Rulers
Time Ruled (B.C) Unless Noted
9th – 10th Dynasties 2170-2020 B.C.
18 Kings
Herakleopolitan
2170-2020
2134-2040
As the pharaohs wielded little power to the masses, civil war broke out. Many clashes occur along the separate kingdom borders. Anarchy begins and Egypt begins to weaken. Some of the nobles in Thebes declare themselves as the rightful heirs to the throne. In addition, tomb robbing also has its origin as well as the beginning of diverse literature.


Middle Kingdom (2119 - 1793 B.C)
Dynasty
Rulers
Time Ruled (B.C) Unless Noted
11th Dynasty 2119-1976 B.C.





Mentuhotem I
Intef I
Intef II
Intef III
Mentuhotep II
Mentuhotep III
Mentuhotep IV
2119 – Unknown
Unknown – 2103
2103-2054
2054-2046
2046-1995
1995-1983
1983-1976
The Thebian king reunites Egypt. Thebes is made the capital and local rulers are instilled. Cultural development declined at the onset of this period but then took an upturn.
12th Dynasty 1976-1793 B.C.









Amenemhet I
Sesostris I
(Senusret I)
Amenemhet II
Sesostris II
(Senusret II)
Sesostris III
(Senusret III)
Amenemhet III
Amenemhet IV
Queen Sobeknefru
1976-1947
1956-1911/10

1014-1879/76
1882-1872

1872-1853

1853-1806/05
1807/06-1798/97
1798/97-1794/93
There are conquests in Nubia. Significant literary works are created in this time period.


Second Intermediate Period (1550 - 1794 B.C)
Dynasty
Rulers
Time Ruled (B.C) Unless Noted
13th Dynasty
14th Dynasty
15th Dynasty
16th Dynasty
17th Dynasty

1794-1550 B.C.
50 Kings
Unknown
Hyksos
Unknown
Unknown


1794/94-1648
Unknown-1648
1648-1539
Unknown
1645-1550


The God Osiris assumed a great role in this culture as followers were expanded to allow the rich and poor alike. The sun god Re also was in much popularity throughout this time. Art as well as trade thrived for the first few dynasties. Asian interlopes rule as well as the Hyksos in Lower Egypt through the 15th Dynasty and this dominated the country for decades. Close to the 17th Dynasty, the Thebans declared war and with the use of the horse and the chariot, liberated the delta from the Hyksos.


New Kingdom(1069 - 1550 B.C)
Dynasty
Rulers
Time Ruled (B.C) Unless Noted
18th Dynasty 1550-1292 B.C.












Ahmose I
Amenhotep I
Thutmosis I
Thutmosis II
Queen Hatshepsut
Thutmosis III
Amenhotep II
Thutmosis IV
Amenhotep III
Akhenaten
Semenkhkare
Tutankhamun
Ay
Horemheb
1550-1525
1525-1504
1504-1492
1492-1479
1479-1458/57
1479-1425
1428-1397
1397-1388
1388-1351/50
1351-1334
1337-1333
1333-1323
1323-1319
1319-1292
19th Dynasty1292-1185 B.C.









Ramesses I
Sethos I
(Seti I)
Ramessess II
Merenptah
(Merneptah)
Amenmesse
Sethos II
(Seti II)
Siptah/Queen
Tausret
1292-1290
1290-1279-78

1279-1213
1213-1203

1203-1200/1199
1199-1194/93

1194/93-1186/85

Egypt becomes a power to be reckoned with as conquests extend as far as Syria and the Euphrates and these pharaohs are determined never to allow Egypt to be ruled by outsiders again. Egypt again becomes wealthy. Akhenaten, who comes to be known as the heretic king rules during this Dynasty. He brings Aten (sun disc god) to the forefront and diminishes the role of the god Amun (meaning the hidden one). The boy Tutankhamen also rules during in this era.
20th Dynasty 1186-1069 B.C.








Sethnakht
Ramessess III
Ramessess IV
Ramessess V
Ramessess VI
Ramessess VII
Ramessess VIII
Ramessess IX
Ramessess X
Ramessess XI
1186-1183/82
1183/82-1152/51
1152/51-1145/44
1145/44-1142/40
1142/40-1134
1134-1126
1126-1125
1125-1107
1107-1103
1103-1070/69
A shift in art and architecture took place – mostly devoted to Amen or Amun – the God of Thebes through both the 19th and the 20th Dynasties. Abu Simbel, Ramesseum, and Karnak temples are built during this period. Trials of the tomb robbers come forth. Tanis becomes the capital and Thebes is under the rule of priests.


Third Intermediate Period(714 - 1170 B.C)
Dynasty
Rulers
Time Ruled (B.C) Unless Noted
21st Dynasty 1170-945 B.C.





Smendes I
Amenemnesu
Psusennes I
Amenemope
Osorkon the Elder
Siamun
Psusennes II
1170/69-1044/43
1044/43-1040/39
1044/43-994/93
996/95-985/84
985/84-979/78
979/78-960/59
960/59-946/45
22nd Dynasty 945-736 B.C.






Sheshonq I
Osorkon I
Siamun
Sheshonq II
Osorkon II
Sheshonq III
Pami
Sheshonq V
946/45-925/24
925/24-890
890-877
877-875
875-837
837-798/785
785-774
774-736
23rd Dynasty (Delta) 756-722 B.C.



Pedubastis II
(at Tanis)
Iuput II
(at Lentopolis)
Osorkon IV
756-732/30

756-725 Unknown

732/30-722
24th Dynasty 740-714 B.C.

Tefnakht
Bocchoris
(Bakenrenef)
740-719
719-714

Invaders enter from the North. Power is dwindling and corruption is running rampart and gangs of soldiers begin to terrorize the citizens. There is a split in Egypt and the upper portion of Egypt is ruled by military rulers who take over the priesthood of Amen. Monarchs take control of the delta region. Libyan descendents are in control until they are overpowered by the Nubians – a nation to the south. The kings of the 25th dynasty wore a dual uraeus on their crowns which symbolized the combined rule of Egypt and Nubia.


Late Period (332 - 7468 B.C)
Dynasty
Rulers
Time Ruled (B.C) Unless Noted
25th Dynasty
(Kushites)
746-655 B.C.


Piyi (Piankhi)
Shabako
Shebitku
Taharqa
Tanotamum
746-715
715-700
700-690
690-664
664-655
26th Dynasty 664-525 B.C.







Psammetichus I (Psamtik I)
Necho (Nekau)
Psammetichus II (Psamtik II)
Apries (Wahibre)
Amasis (Ahmose II)
Psammetichus III (Psamtik III)
664-610

610-595
595-589

589-570
570-526
526-525

27th Dynasty
525-401 B.C.
1st Persian Period

525-401

28TH Dynasty
404-399 B.C.
Amyrtaeus

404/401-399

29TH Dynasty
399-380 B.C.



Nepherites I
(Nefaarud I)
Achoris (Hakor)
Nepherites II
(Nefaarud II)
399-393

393-380
380-380

30TH Dynasty 380-342 B.C.



Nektanebo I
(Nakhtnebef I)
Teos (Djedhor)
Nektanebo II
(Nakhtnebef II)
380-362

364/362-360
360-342

31st Dynasty 342-332 B.C.

2nd Persian Period


342-332


Rulers of other countries gain entry into Egypt; Libyan, Ethiopian, and Persian.


Ptolemaic Period (332-30 B.C.)
Dynasty
Rulers
Time Ruled (B.C) Unless Noted
Macedonians and Ptolemies Rule


Alexander the Great
Ptolemy I-XII
Cleopatra I-VII

332-30
310-30
(Ptolemy I- XII and Cleopatra I-VII rule)
Alexander the Great enters Egypt and becomes the new conqueror. Alexandria is founded. New kings are put into place. These kings are Ptolemaic Greek rulers from Macedonia. Many great temples are also created; Dendera, Esna, Edfu,Kom Ombo, and Philae. Cleopatra VII is the last Egyptian queen and the most famous of all. The famous library of Alexandria burns down.


Roman Period (332-30 B.C.)
Dynasty
Rulers
Time Ruled (B.C) Unless Noted
Romans Rule
30 B.C. – 395 A.D.
Romans are in Power

30 B.C.- 395 A.D.

Egypt has now become part of the Roman Empire. Ceasar Theodosius is now the new ruler. Christianity becomes the new religion. Most of the Eqyptian temples are closed as a result of the new ruler.


Byzantine Period (394-640 B.C.)
Dynasty
Rulers
Time Ruled (B.C) Unless Noted
Byzantine Rule394-640 A.D.
Byzantines in Power

394-640 A.D.

Egypt is now ruled from Constantinople and the Isis temple of Philae is closed.


Arabic-Moslem Period (640 A.D.)
Dynasty
Rulers
Time Ruled (B.C) Unless Noted
Arabic-Moslem Rule 640 A.D.
Arabs-Muslims in Power
640 A.D.

The Byzantines are expelled and Egypt now becomes a part of the caliph kingdom.