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Heaven's stargate
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PostPosted: Sat Jul 03, 2004 4:32 pm 
Pharaoh
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as are the pyramid's which we study in depth. It so seem's that since Sekhmet has joined this board the flame's are constant. That is okay because it lead's to the beginning of all truth's. I found the site @ http://www.pilgrimpromo.com/WAR/discove ... pter12.htm
I tried sharing w/the forum but it wouldn't let me....not that I wanted to just cut and paste, per say.

Also Lysumachus,
I found this site which is extremely interesting considering the flaming holy war that is going on right now on Kingtutone: http://www.kenanderson.net/bible/history.html
You will find out more about me under the Queen whom was Pharoah topic if you are interested.
I already know these thing's it's just proving them to the unseen. Once I do this...I think I will write a book.
Again, Lysimachus.....thank's for getting my back.


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Re: Heaven's stargate
PostPosted: Sat Jul 03, 2004 4:36 pm 
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bel wrote:
as are the pyramid's which we study in depth. It so seem's that since Sekhmet has joined this board the flame's are constant. That is okay because it lead's to the beginning of all truth's. I found the site @ http://www.pilgrimpromo.com/WAR/discove ... pter12.htm
I tried sharing w/the forum but it wouldn't let me....not that I wanted to just cut and paste, per say.

Also Lysumachus,
I found this site which is extremely interesting considering the flaming holy war that is going on right now on Kingtutone: http://www.kenanderson.net/bible/history.html
You will find out more about me under the Queen whom was Pharoah topic if you are interested.
I already know these thing's it's just proving them to the unseen. Once I do this...I think I will write a book.
Again, Lysimachus.....thank's for getting my back.

Actually Bel, I think Sekhy was here on this site before you were. You seem to deny the fact that you have anything to do with the flaming. And let me ask you this, If you didnt believe in reincarnation and you met someone online who was coincidentally claiming to be Hatshepsut (and you will notice there is 2 of you like that on this site, odd?) would you believe them? Dont treat the "unseen" like ignorant people.


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Re: Heaven's stargate
PostPosted: Sat Jul 03, 2004 5:23 pm 
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Posts:501
PharoahKel wrote:
bel wrote:
as are the pyramid's which we study in depth. It so seem's that since Sekhmet has joined this board the flame's are constant. That is okay because it lead's to the beginning of all truth's. I found the site @ http://www.pilgrimpromo.com/WAR/discove ... pter12.htm
I tried sharing w/the forum but it wouldn't let me....not that I wanted to just cut and paste, per say.

Also Lysumachus,
I found this site which is extremely interesting considering the flaming holy war that is going on right now on Kingtutone: http://www.kenanderson.net/bible/history.html
You will find out more about me under the Queen whom was Pharoah topic if you are interested.
I already know these thing's it's just proving them to the unseen. Once I do this...I think I will write a book.
Again, Lysimachus.....thank's for getting my back.

Actually Bel, I think Sekhy was here on this site before you were. You seem to deny the fact that you have anything to do with the flaming. And let me ask you this, If you didnt believe in reincarnation and you met someone online who was coincidentally claiming to be Hatshepsut (and you will notice there is 2 of you like that on this site, odd?) would you believe them? Dont treat the "unseen" like ignorant people.


What does this have to do w/topic Pharoah Kel? Also alittle FYI... I believe more in what I don't see that what I do. Even the dumb and simple have their truth and story. We are all created equal. How have I treated the unseen like ignorant people? Is this a deliberate attempt to be rid of me and is this okay to make me feel this way?


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PostPosted: Sat Jul 03, 2004 5:44 pm 
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Lysimachus wrote:

But before I go on and delve into the upcoming data, I want to ask you some questions so that I know which approach you are coming from. From what I have read so far, I have gathered thus:

1. That you believe Rameses II was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Correct?

2. That the Exodus occurred during the 19th dynasty. Correct?

3. That the Exodus took place much later than 1446 BC. Correct?

If the above is true, all of these issue including much much more will be dealt with in the upcoming data.

But here is a list of questions that I do want you to provide me, since these are issues that are seriously considered in the upcoming hypothesis. I want to know if these issues are well considered in your hypothesis:


Hi Lysimachus,
Now we can perhaps talk :) i do hope that you heal soon and well from your leg injury. First off since you limit the Lord God's creation to just 6000 years there is little i can do to sway you to the truth of his great creation. However i will continue to do as i do and pray that He will enlighten you to his greatness.

i do suggest that you do a web search on Sextus Julius Africanus, the Father of Christian Chronology it may, enlighten you a bit on the formation of the 6,000 year old earth belief. Which is a creation of men, and not from the Lord. (see websites on Africanus, and Time Immemorial, Archaic History and Its Sources in Christian Chronolography from Julius Africanus to George Syncellus, by William Adler.)

Sorry, no i do not believe that Ramesses II was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. I suggest you go back and READ my posts. i do believe that he was the Pharaoh Shishak that sacked Jerusalem during the reign of Solomon's son.

You have not answered my question about the tombs of the Thutmoses' and Amenhoteps' found in the Valley of the Kings. While double burial grounds were the norm during the Early and Predynastic Periods this practice ceased by the Old Kingdom and was not practiced again. Even if you do want to suggest this, the fact that all these kings built tombs in the Valley of the Kings would discourage it because they were built in the same place unlike the Early and Predynastic tombs.


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PostPosted: Sat Jul 03, 2004 6:03 pm 
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Lysimachus wrote:
Quote:
Not only do you use Shoshenq I as Shishak,


Where on earth did I say this? What do I say that implies this? No where have I said that Shoshenq I is the same as Shishak. But I fail to see how this has anything to do with nullifying the 1446 BC theory. Perhaps because Rameses III, who I presume you believe is Shishak ruled from 1184-1153, and that this would place Solomon around this time instead of 970 BC? I highly doubt so, because in this case, you'd have to throw 1 Kings 6:1 completely out the window. You do mean scripture to harmonize I would assume? Or are you willing to throw out the 480 years completely. The 480 years does not in any way shape or form coincide between the reign of Rameses II (1279-1213 BC) of which you place the Exodus, and Rameses III (Shishak) (1184-1153). Even if you subtract the beginning year of 1279 of Rameses II and the ending year of Rameses III of 1153, you only get a 126 year DIFFERENCE. Now that is outragously small in comparison to 480 years if you ask me.

Not only this, there is an overwhelming amount of evidence supports the evidence that Solomon's correnation was in 970 BC. Additionally, 14C-dating of remains of Jericho suggests the destruction to have happened around 1400 BC--sources: B.G. Wood (1990) Dating Jericho's destruction, Biblical Archaeology Review, 5.

According to my upcoming hypothesis, the destruction of Jericho would have occurred approximately 1406 BC which completely throws out all theory of the Exodus taking place during Rameses II, since there is a vast 200 year difference here, and Joshua conquered Jericho not long after Moses died.

As for Judges 2:18, I see no contradiction between the verses. What leads you to believe this? I've read the verse like 10 times already, and even searched numerous comments on it in google. Nothing at all relating to a nullification of using 1 Kings 6:1 as an appropriate dating guide for the Exodus. Nothing.


Hello again Lysimachus,
Without knowledge or understanding you Do Use Shoshenq I as Shishak. How do i know this because you place Solomon in ca. 970 BCE. All YEC, use Shoshenq I as Shishak because it supports their YECT. Even though there is no evidence that he ever sacked Jerusalem and the further distortions of Egyptian history it creates. (see posts that discuss Dr. Rohl's and Dr. Mysliwiec's discreditation of this identification.) Shoshenq I ruled from ca. 945-924 BCE. Add 36 years for the rest of Solomon's rule and add 15 for the years of his son's rule prior to Shishak, and subtract it from 970 and see what you get.)

You see no problem with Judges 2:18 with 2nd Kings 6:1 ? i do. Did you forget to follow my whole suggestion with regards to verse 2:18? Did you add up all the years mentioned in Judges? They do not total 480 years but 583 years. 583 years is an extra 103 years, and that nullifies 2nd Kings 6:1. So yes i do throw out 2nd Kings 6:1

No, i do not consider Ramesses III as Shishak, this identification would again negate Merneptah's notice. That Israel had a Prince begging Peace from him. As i said in several earlier posts Lysimachus, i believe Ramesses II was Shishak. Since i am not limited to a mere earth history of 6,000 years i am free to look for the "works" of God throughout Egypt's history without the slicing and dicing that YEC's have to.

Again i hope that your leg heals well and with speed. :) Hit the books, i am LOL :) Again garbage in... garbage out. Please save your lectures for those that are in need of them, i am not thank you.


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PostPosted: Sat Jul 03, 2004 9:46 pm 
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Lysimachus wrote:
Not only this, there is an overwhelming amount of evidence supports the evidence that Solomon's correnation was in 970 BC. Additionally, 14C-dating of remains of Jericho suggests the destruction to have happened around 1400 BC--sources: B.G. Wood (1990) Dating Jericho's destruction, Biblical Archaeology Review, 5.
According to my upcoming hypothesis, the destruction of Jericho would have occurred approximately 1406 BC which completely throws out all theory of the Exodus taking place during Rameses II, since there is a vast 200 year difference here, and Joshua conquered Jericho not long after Moses died.


Hello again Lysimachus,
First off there is no archaeological data that supports Solomon in the 10th century. This is another reason why non YEC's are growing even more vocal in their cries that the Bible isn't reliable.
As for Jericho, what about Gezer, Ai, and Hazor? Just to name a few of the cities Joshua was supposed to have conquered? While Hazor does show destruction in about 1458BCE it is generally ascribed to Thutmose III's first of seven campaigns in the area. Myself, for your information, ascribe it to both Thutmose III, and that of the Judge Debroah. The strata of Hazor shows it was destroyed at the end of the Early Bronze Age and then again during the early 18th Dynasty. Both Debroah and Thutmose III claim capture of 900 iron chariots against the King of Hazor. While the earlier EBA destruction i ascribe to Joshua. Two destructions just as the two destructions are listed in the Bible.

Jericho, Gezer, Ai, and Hebron all show destruction at the end of the Early Bronze Age. Gezer a well documented town shows no destruction during the 18th Dynasty, while it does show that Egpyt wasn't ruling it after the reign of Amenhotep III. It did not return to the Egyptian fold until Ramesses II, my Shishak.

Then there is the city of Ai to consider. It isn't even well documented that Ai was in existance in the early 18th Dynasty. The problem with Ai is that there are two sites both with good claim to bein Ai. While Egyptian documentation shows that Ai was a major trading city to the 2nd Dynasty Pharaoh Khsemkhewy, the father of Djoser. Neither site gives good evidence of being an Early Bronze Age site which tells me that Ai hasn't been found yet.

Jericho's walls of the Early Bronze Age are extremely interesting to me... :) poorly constructed they could easily be destroyed as scripture tells. But again this date is far to early for the vast majority of scholars based only upon Christian Chronology that uses Shoshenq I as Shishak, and 2nd Kings 6:1.

I have the highest respect for Dr. Byrant Woods of ChristianAnswerNet.com despite his YEC beliefs and support for an 18th Dynasty Exodus. We are all entitled to be wrong. It is a never-ending source of vexation to me that YEC's can use carbon14 for their own purposes, yet disregard it when it does not fit their purpose or should i say their theology. i think of James 3:10-12 and leave it to Him who is able.

Again i hope you a speedy recovery :)


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Re: Hatshepsut Xnem Amen
PostPosted: Sun Jul 04, 2004 9:55 am 
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I thought i never get the snipping done Thanks bel, Lysimachus' from heaven fallen angel. umm fallen angel? :roll:
bel wrote:
WHO WAS MOSES?
It was young Nefure who rescued baby Moses from the Nile In the museums across the world are various statues, unlike any other ancient Egyptian statues, which are of a young girl holding a baby or small child- this child wears on his head the "royal side-lock" of a future prince. The names on these statues are "Nefure" and "Senmut"- Senmut being the baby's name. However, the scholars have designated the woman in these statues as being a man named "Senmut", who is the official nurse of princess "Nefure".


Okay this is a serious misrepresentation of the truth... there are photos on the web of these statues... the only name that is within a cartouch is Nefure as is fitting a "God's wife", that the man is without headress and has hair that might be taken by a non-expert in Egyptianology for a woman isn't surprising it is a hair style favored by male scribes of non royal status.

bel wrote:
Moses = SENMUT
"Senmut" is the Egyptian name given to Moses when he first came to live at the palace. This name is of extreme importance for it means literally "mother's brother".


Aww i am sorry but doesn't this uncredited author read his Bible? Exodus 3:10 "She brought him to Pharaoh's daughter and he became her son. And she named him Moses, and said. "Because I drew him out of the water."
She named him Moses not Senmut (mother's brother)!

bel wrote:
He was being "set up" in the Egyptian economy to possibly be the future king- the royal heir of his "grandfather-pharaoh". His "grandfather" (adopted, of course) had no royal male heirs- they had died. But he had one royal daughter, Nefure. The future king could only inherit the throne through the royal daughter.


Excuse me this "only inherit the throne through the royal daughter" is mostly discredited now days and few real Egyptianologists give it any credence.

bel wrote:
She (Nefure) convinced her father, the pharaoh, to make her little adopted boy his future heir. Nefure, as the symbolic Isis, had her little "Osiris/Horus", who was named "Senrout"- his "mother's brother". If all of this seems a bit complicated and silly, just compare it with the rules and regulations of the royal family of England today. The right to the throne doesn't pass that easily to someone inside the family, much less outside of the family. But, in times when there is no heir, preparations and steps must be taken to procure the right for whoever is determined.


Okay, first Pharaoh issues the death decree for all little Hebrew male babies, (Exodus 1:22) Then lets his daughter adopt one, and grooms him for the throne. Right! :roll:

2nd The succession of Thutmose I a non-royal heir of Amenhotep I didn't pose as much problems as this author seems to think it caused. Oh, yes he has Thutmose I as co-regent of Ahmose the father of Amenhotep I. i can see where the truth of succession wouldn't sink into his mind.

SNIPED A LARGE PART OF SOME REALLY WILD STUFF

bel wrote:
THE PHARAOH OF THE EXODUS

Upon Amenhotep II's death, his co-regent for 29 years, the 4th Thutmoses, became Amenhotep III. Upon his becoming emperor, he appointed his young son, Tutankhamen, as "crown-prince" and for the next 8/9 years, this pharaoh ruled Egypt.


Excuse me but the highest date yet known for Thutmose IV whether as corregent or emperor is year nine. See KMT A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt, Volume 13, Number 2 Summer 2002 Menkheperure Djehutymes: The Fourth & Final Thutmose by Dennis Forbes, pg 45

bel wrote:
But most interesting about this man is the fact that historical data shows that he actually had no claim to the throne. He was not the first-born of the pharaoh, which was the standard mode of becoming emperor.


Excuse me, but being the son of the King is all the claim one really needs to take a throne... and in some cases like Ay, Horemheb you don't even need to be a King's son. I thought earlier this author claimed you had to marry the royal princess to get the throne... aww what??????????? :shock:

Sorry, i have had enough of the noncredited source for a while... perhaps i will be back to answer the rest of these ... all i can say; :oops: in the end if God had to have it this convoluted to do his great works... no wonder he isn't around today, as so many claim it would have tired him out... as it did me :wink: You all have a great day!


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Re: Hatshepsut Xnem Amen
PostPosted: Sun Jul 04, 2004 10:14 am 
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bel wrote:
She (Nefure) convinced her father, the pharaoh, to make her little adopted boy his future heir. Nefure, as the symbolic Isis, had her little "Osiris/Horus", who was named "Senrout"- his "mother's brother". If all of this seems a bit complicated and silly, just compare it with the rules and regulations of the royal family of England today. The right to the throne doesn't pass that easily to someone inside the family, much less outside of the family. But, in times when there is no heir, preparations and steps must be taken to procure the right for whoever is determined.


The Pharoah at this time had ordered male Hebrew children to be killed so they would not overthrow Egyptian society or take over the throne. There is no way the Pharoah would let a young Hebrew child be brought into his household and raised there.


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PostPosted: Sun Jul 04, 2004 1:25 pm 
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Thank you for responding Sekhmet.

I'm sure we can have many fruitful discussions from now and in the future from now on. :) Oh, and thanks for your concern about my leg. The good news is, my leg is healing rather well, and the Doctor has been absolutely amazed!

I will remind you that although you are suggesting me to read a million books, there is no guarantees I will be able to get to them anywhere near in the future. I've already got my hands full with about 10 or so books...very good books regarding archeology and history.

Now instead of replying to each and every paragraph that you made, I'm just going to go ahead and post my massive response of which I have prepared. From there it might answer a lot of your questions.

One crucial question you have not addressed is this: If 1 Kings 6:1 is not to be applied, then what is the verse for? How do you interpret the verse? If it is to be interpreted differently, why do you not use it to support your theory? Obviously it means something! Or are you one that select various verses from the Bible that you like and throw out others? Well, I believe in harmonization of scripture. You take Judges and put it on a pedestal, and since you like Judges better, you take that and cuttle it but completely neglect 1 Kings. Now is that whata TRUE Christian is supposed to do? I think not.

Also, you fail to answer a number of questions that I have raised. I asked you to list me some figures during whatever Pharaoh you place during the Exodus, and help identify which ones would be considered various important Biblical characters, such as who was Moses? who was his foster mother? etc. etc. etc.

In my upcoming post, I address a great number of characters that fit the biblical description in more ways than one. Based on this, we are able to determine the inconsistencies in the traditional dating community.

For example, I can prove to you that Imhotep was most likely Joseph. And when you see the upcoming data supporting this, I can already see you throwing dates at me and telling me the dates don't jibe. Well let me say this, the upcoming data providing indepth comparison of historical characters with biblical characters meets up with the 6000 year belief with a T!

Have you even studied the enormous amount of evidence on the web supporting the 6000 year theory? Have you seen how the calculations are done from the Bible? Now since it is impossible for me to cover all topics at once, I will start from the beginning, and I will continue to provide additional posts. Joseph will come down a little bit later, since there is so much to cover. Give me about no more than 2 hours, and I should have the first posts up.


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PostPosted: Sun Jul 04, 2004 3:32 pm 
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Hi again Lysimachus,
i rejoice to hear that you are healing so well! :)
First let us get some things straight it is my nature and training to be concerned about my fellow human beings. And i do hope you get well soon. Second i am no christian, period.
Third i am not in anyway interested in your "proofs" on a YEC i have investigated it fully to my complete satisfaction. Sextus Julius Africanus i bet doesn't even come into play in your proofs. Yet, he is the man responsibile for it, it seem reasonable to him back in the 2nd century Ad. For his reasonable 2nd AD thinking he is considered the Father of Christian Chronology. His original chronology allowed for only 501 years before the return of Christ. The early christian father Jerome, living in the 4th century reworked Africanus orginal to give earth another 2000 years. Various church fathers worked on it with the last real changes coming in 1650 AD by the respected church elder Bishop James Ussher. The last adaptation of this chronology dates to about 1826 when Champollion misidentified Shoshenq I as Shishak. This information is easily available in greater depht on the web. i sincerely suggest you read up on it. Save your proofs i have most likely aready checked into them and found them sorely lacking to my standards.
Fouth this is an Egyptian board post more than an paragraph or two on YEC and as moderator i will be forced to deal with it. Espeically if you are not able to easily tie it into Egyptian history.
Fifth i can easily tie Sextus Julius Africanus and the rest into my topics on Egypt and the Exodus because it is the bases of so much confusion and lack of harmonic flow in historical records.
Sixth if you really want to take me on regarding YEC, i will be happy to discuss it in detail on my pro-darwin talk board at www.Darwintalk.com i am Sekhmet there as well. i humbly suggest you to do a search on Sekhmet's posts there and get an idea of where i will be coming from.
Seventh as for what i am to do with 2nd Kings gross conflict with Judges 2:18 and the rest of Judges... you mock me Lysimachus, it is not appreciated. So, let us say we will just cut out both verses and we still have the entire book of Judges that give us a total of 583 years and without 2nd Kings conflicting 480 years. Judges is the definative winner. :) However, i undestand you to be an excited eager young man... so i will not lead you astray. The proper understanding of 2nd Kings 6:1 is that it is an egocentric verse. Do you know what egocentric means? It means Holding the view that the ego (in this case of the children of Israel) is the center, object, and norm of all experiences. It applies wonderfully to 2nd Kings 480 years of Jewish self rule not the inclusive of foreign rule that Judges provides us with.
Eighth you want names? Try Teti as the King that did not know Joseph, Weni as the oppressor, Queen Weretyames as the Moses' stepmother, Pepy II the last and 2nd son of Pepy I. As for the men that wanted Moses dead, i have a handful, how many do you have? Let us remember to count those men already mentioned Weni, Pepy I (Moses' stepfather), his two real sons Menkaurf the eldest, and Pepy II they youngest, their common grandfather the father of their mothers (yes, mothers) Lord Khui of Abydene, Lord Djau the son of Khui. Lord Weni lead 5 different campaigns in what is now Palestine, he left a stela that records his life under Teti, Pepy I and Menkaurf. Pepy I came to the throne as a very young boy and married to his eldest sister Q. Weretyames you can read about her secret trial. Judged by Lord Weni himself, no one else a most remarkable stela he left us. I suggest you google it up and read it all. By he way archaeology can only support a reign of 67 years for Pepy, his father ruled about 54 years and his brother only 9 years. There is no scriptural notice of how many months, years or even days it took for the plagues.

Boy and i don't have to slice or dice! All i have to do is eliminate Christian Chronology as established by Africanus, Jerome, and Ussher. It isn't hard really.

Aww, Consider the dates of Imhotep who i also recongize as Joseph, there is no other Vizier of Ancient Egypt that could be identified as Joseph. Where did Joseph, i.e., Imhotep learn the healing arts? Well, if not from his parents then he learned in his years in prison. Prisons aren't real healthy you know. :)
Who was the Pharaoh of the Dreams? Why the father of Djoser, Pharaoh Khasekhemwy last Pharaoh of the 2nd Dynasty. Who Manetho, messed up and put another Pharaoh in between father and son. Greeks you remember the old adage of never trusting Greeks bearing gifts. i do. Anyway, i can imagine your reading this in right good old christian outrage!

I am eliminating a man made chronology... while looking at Egyptian history...nothing more. i am far more respectful of scripture than those that want to use a misidentified man as another, deny the greatness of another. While using a verse from scripture that is in conflict with a Book of Scripture and only works to mess the greater whole up even more. Oh and i can even tell you who, Pharaoh was that Abraham lied too. :) it isn't hard really when you READ the Bible, and then compare it to Ancient Egyptian history as told by experts. It isn't Narmer, if that is what you're thinking. LOL try lieing to him and you'ld lose your head, even if God was on your side.
By the way Lysimachus, this is all copyrighted material and you are welcome to use it as long as you include that it is copyrighted material of Patricia Blosser-Lotfinia, 2000. i am not quite finish with the writing up of it for publication. :) I will be.

Now we have somethings straight and you have your answers, i hope. :) Can i have mine?


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PostPosted: Sun Jul 04, 2004 4:27 pm 
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Okay, I am absolutely confused now. How can you not be a Christian and yet believe in the Exodus period? You are the strangest fellow I have ever met in my life...it is like you believe in the Bible, but yet you don't, but then yet you do, but then yet you don't.....

Well I'm not playing games. Either you take the Bible 100% literal, or you throw it out completely, because I believe it is the infallible word of God, and nothing is going to waver me from that, period. At least I'll have some bases for my argument, but I have no idea how to treat you, because you're almost like a mixture of an evolutionist, creationist, christian, agnostic...all at the same time, and how is it possible to argue with someone like that? It's just insane...

AS far as I'm concerned, you are slicing and dicing history. Nothing of what you say makes sense, but what I'm about to post does. I don't agree with Africanus, Jerome or Ussher. They simply have their own "interpretations", not lead by inspiration. At first I took it you were a Christian, because you were even talking about not letting this become a matter of salvation. Why would you say that if you're not a christian? You seem more mixed up than the tribes that were confounded at Babylon. I'd rather debate with an die hard athiest than you if you're going come from a blender as you have. At least an athiest has one rock to stand on, not a thousand pebbles as you're standing on.

You identify characthers, but you do not identify charactheristics of those characters to fit scripture. What I'm about to do is identify characteristics with my characters. And we'll see which ones jibe with scripture better, yours or mine. I sincerely hope you will see through this. I doubt you have any idea of all the works Moller has done. I also hope you don't miss that 3hr./3part series that is for the first time going to hit national television sometime near the end of this year...and before you know it, the world is going to see the truth as to who Joseph really was, Moses really was, Pharaoh really was, and where the Exodus really took place!


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The Exodus, Egyptian Chronology, & The Bible - Part 1
PostPosted: Sun Jul 04, 2004 7:12 pm 
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Part 1

In order for one to comprehend the amount of flexibility that exists in interpreting Egyptian history/chronology, the presented hypothesis must be seen in greater depth along with what famous authors of Egyptian history have to say. Throughout this study, you will notice my "Editors notes". Be sure to read them as well.
------------------------------------------------------------------------


Quoted from Dr. Lennart Moller’s book, “The Exodus Case”:

12. DOES MOSES EXIST IN EGYPTIAN HISTORY?

Is Moses to be found in Egyptian history? Moses was “only” heir to the throne and, according to Josephus, general in command of the Egyptian army, and there are many pharaohs who are mainly unknown. However, Moses was a very prominent person and it can be assumed [Editors note: just like all the Egyptologists can assume] on good grounds that the life of Moses was documented in various ways as the lives of all other important people were documented in Egyptian society.

To questions are of importance. On the one hand what Egyptian name could Moses have had, and on the other whether any historical information about this person has been preserved. AS we will see, the hypothesis is that Moses DOES appear during the 18th dynasty. It should be noted here that the dynasties of Egypt area relative concept but they have come to be considered as indicating different eras of time. The dynasty concept will be used for the sake of simplicity but it can be worthwhile to see what Breasted (34. J.H. Breasted (1921) A History of Egypt, Hodder and Stoughton, London, England.) writes about the dynasties as a CONCEPT:

“A more or less arbitrary and artificial but convenient subdivision of these epochs, beginning with the historic age, is furnished by the so-called dynasties of Manetho. This native historian of Egypt, a priest of Sebennytos, who flourished under Ptolemy I (305-285 BC), wrote a history of his country in the Greek language. The work has perished, and we only know it is in epitome by Julius Africanus and Eusebius, and extracts ob Josephus. The value the work was slight, as it was built up on folk tales and popular traditions of the early kings. Manetho divided the long succession of Pharaohs as known to him, into thirty royal houses or dynasties, and although we know that many of his divisions are arbitrary, and that there was many a dynastic change where he indicates none, yet his dynasties divide the kings into convenient groups, which have so long been employed in modern study of Egyptian history, that it is now impossible to dispense with them.”

Tyldesley (35. J. Tyldesley (1998) Hatshetsup, the Female Pharaoh, Penguin Books, Harmonsdsworth, England.) have the following comments related to the 18th dynasty:

“The surviving archeological evidence is therefore strongly biased toward religion and death; we have for example, two tombs, three sarcophagi and several temples built by Hatshepsut, but little trace of the palaces where she lived her life. Overall we are left with the misleading impression that the Egyptians were depressingly gloomy and morbid race.”

And further, in general comment to the Egyptian history:

“…we should never lose sight of the fact that the written record is INCOMPLETE, randomly selected, and carries its own biases. The monumental inscriptions, for example, are basically a mixture of religious and propaganda texts which tell the story that the king him – or herself wished to convey, and which cannot be taken as literal truth. The translators of these inscriptions are faced with problems not just of accuracy but of interpretation…”

And a comment to Egyptian chronology:

“However, there was no ancient equivalent of our modern calendar, and year numbers started afresh with every new reign.”

And a final comment on Egyptian names:

“Manetho, working in approximately 300 BC, compiled a detailed history of the kings of Egypt. This original work is now lost, but fragments have been preserved in the writings of Josephus (AD 70), Africanus (early third century AD), Eusebius (early fourth century AD) and Syncellus (c. AD 800). These preserved extracts do not always agree, and the names given are often wildly incorrect, but students of Egyptian history still acknowledge a huge debt to Manetho, the ‘Father of Egyptian History’.

[Editors note: So there you have it. You cannot rely on the sources of which you gather your information stating that Senmut was after the reign of Thutmosis II, of which most love to use this argument]

13. THE CONNECTION WITH THE HYKSOS PEOPLE

The 18th dynasty is characterized by the fact that at least two and probably three pharaohs or rules reigned in Egypt at the same time. The reigning Egyptian family lived in Thebes, the pharaoh who would take over lived in Memphis, while another ruler controlled the northern delta region. The Egyptians considered the delta people to be foreigners. There is good reason to believe that it was the Hebrews, descendants of Joseph, who were the foreigners who had settled in the delta region on the orders of the pharaoh reigning at the time. It is probably that other tribes as well had moved into this fertile region of the country, tribes who gave rise to the name Hyksos.

From the beginning, the Hebrews in the delta area received royal status on account of Joseph’s contributions as minister of state when he saved Egypt from the seven years of famine. This is clear not least from the way in which Joseph’s father, Jacob, was embalmed after his death. In Gen. 50:1-14 this is described as 40 days of embalming, a 70-day period of public mourning in Egypt and a large Egyptian retinue present at the interment in Hebron. The Hebrews received a royal position and from the texts in the Book of Exodus we see how this family very quickly grew to be an entire nation.

It is therefore probably that those whom the Egyptians called foreigners and who lived in the delta region with the name of “Hyksos” were Hebrews intermingled with other tribal peoples from Asia. Moreover it can be added that they had a different religion from the Egyptians, which also tallies with the hypothesis that it was the Hebrew people, probably with other tribes too, with a relatively independent leadership.

Inscriptions exist which in different ways mention these “shepherd kings”. This too that they are called “shepherd kings” implies a group of people with the predominating occupation of being shepherds, which is how the biblical texts describe the Hebrews and which was also the reason that Pharaoh gave them the delta land in which to settle (Gen. 46:31-34).

There is an interesting inscription (23. Hatshepsut’s Temple Inscription at Speos Artemidos, translated by Goedicke.) of queen Hatshepsut during the 18th dynasty which refers to the time when the Hyksos people had been driven out of the country: “I have restored what had decayed, I annulled the former privileges since the Asiatics were in the region of Avaris of Lower Egypt (the delta). The immigrants among them disregarded the tasks which were assigned to them, thinking Re would not consent….” The text in brackets is the author’s (Moller) comment.

The evidence is lacking to what really took place but the Egyptian records suggests that a warrior people (Asians, barbarians) lived among the Northland people (the Hebrews). The Asians (barbarians) were driven out by the Egyptians and a situation arose which most probably was threatening to the Hebrews. They were shepherds and had no possibility of defending themselves. Not least the biblical texts indicate that their position was weak and led them to become slaves, which shows how weak they were as a warrior people (Ex. 1-14).

The Egyptians wanted to be rid of the “barbarians” but considered the shepherd people (the Hebrews) as manpower to use for rebuilding the country. “I have restored what had decayed” says the inscription. The Bible tells us that as slaves the Hebrews were forced to work very hard at building. A new ruler comes to the fore in Egypt who says:

“Come on, let us deal wisely with them; lest they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our enemies, and fight against us, and go get them up out of the land. Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities. Pithom and Raamses.” (Ex. 1:14)

“And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field: all their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigor.” (Ex. 1:14)

When the barbarians are driven away, the Hebrews are allowed to remain, they had received the right to live there from Pharaoh himself, but their rights were taken from them and they became a slave people. Slaves to restore “what had decayed” and presumably to build many other things too, since the Hebrews were numerous at that time.

[Editors note: Before we continue, you need to understand who the Pharaoh’s were during the time of Moses.]

14. WHO WERE THE PHARAOHS DURING THE TIME OF MOSES?

During the 18th dynasty the Pharaohs are said to have been called or entitled Amenhotep or Thutmosis. This hypothesis can be questioned as the name alternates between Amenhotep and Thutmosis. The pharaoh was the embodiment of the most important god and this god was then the highest god for the entire royal family reigning at the time. Since the pharaohs during this dynasty belonged to the same family it is hardly likely that one pharaoh would consider Thot (Thutmosis) was the highest god while another pharaoh considered Amen (Amenhotep) the highest.

Inscriptions found in temples and graves imply rather that “Thutmosis” is a name (title) which a pharaoh might have, and in some way “Amenhotep” was a further title. It is probable that several pharaohs had the title of both “Thutmosis” and “Amenhotep” depending on the stage at which they were in their careers.

The general understanding of this period has confused many scholars, one stating in a comment on other Egyptologists as they are “unaware of the complexities of the Tuthmoside succession” (35. J. Tyldesley (1998) Hatchepsut, the Female Pharaoh, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, England.).

It may be that the co-ruler was “Thutmosis” during the time he reigned together with Pharaoh who was “Amenhotep”. When the co-ruler had to be content with a lower “god title” (Thutmosis). This understanding seems to make a great deal of more sense compared to the traditional viewpoint held that they were separate pharaohs.

To this we can add that the sun god Ra was over the other gods and sequently pharaoh could also add this title to his row of designations. In this context Ra becomes Rameses. Rameses was a title used by many pharaohs, they were all an incarnation of the sun god, as the son of the sun god, or Rameses. This creates some confusion when Rameses II is pointed out as the great pharaoh with all the temples, statues and much more. Particularly when one looks at the statues representing Rameses II. They seem to represent different people. What one should also note is that inscriptions mention the title Rameses on many statues, temples and graves but not with the specification “II”. That is a later idea.

The following is a hypothesis concerning which pharaohs reigned during the time of Moses, with their “double names” according to where in their careers they found themselves at different times.

Is there any information in the biblical texts which can be linked with the hypothesis presented according to the following table about the successions to the throne?:

Once again, Carefully analyze this chart if you would:

Image
[Editors note: Compare with figure 245 later in this study]

It is likely that there is a link. In the First Book of Kings the biblical text is as follows:

“And it came to pass in the four hundredth and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month of Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the LORD.”(1 Kings 6:1)

Here we have a very precise indication of the date of the beginning of the construction of the temple in Jerusalem. Most often the fourth year of king Solomon’s reign is given as approximately 966 BC (ref. 36. F.F. Bruce (1963) Israel and the Nations, The Paternoster Press Ltd., Exeter England.). If one counts back 480 years from the year mentioned, this places the Exodus approximately 1446 BC. Can this date be verified?

In the Encyclopedia Britannica (2. The New Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th edition (1985), London, England.) the following stands:

“ The next date is given by a medical papyrus, to which a calendar is added, possibly to insure a correct conversion of dates used in the receipts to the actual timetable. Here it is said that the 9th day of the 11th month of year 9 of King Amenhotep I was the day of the helical rising of Sothis, i.e. 1538 BC. This date, however, is only accurate provided the astronomical observations were taken at the old residence of Memphis; if observed at Thebes in Upper Egypt, the residence of the 18th dynasty, the date must be lowered 20 years, i.e. 1518 BC.”

The chronology which is described more closely in Chapter 44 of The Exodus Case (drawn up long before reference 2 was found) shows that year nine for Amenhotep I occurred around 1519 BC which coincides AMAZINGLY with the approximate date 1518 BC from reference 2. Here an astronomic observation can be linked with the chronology mentioned in the above table (Table 5) and with great precision place the 18th dynasty within the period of time used in this study.

The following hypothesis is based on the chronology in the table (Table 5) and therewith the astronomic observation in reference 2.

[Editors note: Questions regarding the use of 1 Kings 6:1 have been raised. Later on in upcoming chapters in this article, I will have a thorough study on the dating of the 1446 B.C. Exodus. The data provided will only reinforce that using 1 Kings 6:1 to arrive at 1446 B.C. is correct]

[Editors note: So the next question is, who was Pharaoh’s daughter?]

15. WHO WAS PHARAOH’S DAUGHTER?

By Pharaoh’s daughter is meant here the person who found Moses in the reed basket in the Nile and who later adopted him according to the biblical text in Exodus 2:1-10.

The question then arises if, during the 18th dynasty, there was a Pharaoh who had no son who could inherit the throne but who had a daughter who played this role. Thutmosis I/Amenhotep I tallies with this description. He lacked a male heir but had a daughter who is very well-known in the history of Egypt. Her name was Nefure AND Hatshepsut. In earlier inscriptions when she is a princess she is referred to as Nefure. Later when she becomes queen probably her name/title changes to Hatshepsut.

[Editors note: As you can see, instead of criticizing this hypothesis based on the idea that the time and date doesn’t seem to add up, might it be more appropriate to ask ourselves the following question?: If the figures during this time frame seem to correlate as far as blood relationships, and since there is more confusion placing the appropriate figures in the 19th dynasty, perhaps the dating methods we have been using might be messed up? Perhaps we have been approaching the whole dating concept in a very wrong way? Instead of using dates as our ultimate criteria, why not adjust our approaches to see what makes sense? Not just assume that such and such a name or person cannot fit simply because the “date doesn’t add up”.]

According to this hypothesis, when Moses was born Amose reigned and lived in Thebes. Thutmosis I lived in Memphis and acted as co-ruler. Both of them could be called Pharaoh. Pharaoh comes from the word “pero” meaning “big house”, which implies that the title was a mark of power and influence. Thutmosis I was probably the one who acted as Pharaoh in Memphis and who was the father of Nefure, the person who most likely found Moses and adopted him.

On several statues a young women with a little child is to be seen:

Image

The wording on these statues indicates that it is Nefure and Senmut. The child is wearing a royal ornament on its head indicating royalty, in this context a future heir to the throne. An heir to the throne was always a man, hence these statues represent a little boy.

Nefure is known as a princess and the daughter of Pharaoh Amenhotep I. It is then probable that it is princess Nefure who found the baby Moses in the Nile reeds and adopted him to have an heir to the throne. Other hypotheses claim that these statues represent a man (Senmut) who is responsible for the child Nefure, which the statues do not imply since it is difficult to understand how the older person in these statues can be seen to represent a man.

Similarly it is unlikely that the child was a girl as this would be contrary to the custom in Egypt that the heir to the throne was always a man.

Senmut is an important name for Moses as it has special meaning, namely “mother’s brother”. This name goes back to the Egyptian gods (and royal family according to the Egyptian custom) Osiris, Isis and Horus. In this family in a complicated way, the son of Isis, Horus, becomes his mother’s son and his mother’s brother since he was a reincarnation of Isis’ dead husband, who in turn was Isis’ brother. In other words, Horus was also the brother of Isis (his mother’s brother). This was to show that Isis was the rightful heir to the throne in spite of the fact that his father was dead when he was born.

In the SAME WAY Moses needed to have a rightful identity in order to be heir to the throne. His adoptive mother is thus depicted with Moses, who is then called his “mother’s brother” (Senmut) and thereby receives the right to inherit the throne since his mother is the bearer of this right (although she cannot become Pharaoh). It is another way of saying that Moses, in the same way as Horus, was born into the royal family without a father. In this hypothesis Senmut is not a formal name for Moses but could perhaps be translated as “adopted son” in our everyday language. In another bible passage (Heb. 11:24) it is related that as an adult Moses refused to call himself the son of Pharaohs daughter, which is understandable in view of his adult life.

There is an interesting comment about Senmut in the literature (37. F. Tiradritti (1999) The Cairo Museum Master Pieces of Egyptian Art, Thames and Hudson, London, England.); “It is probably that Senmut abused his power and that at a particular point in the reign of Hatshepsut he fell into disgrace, as demonstrated by the damage done to most of his monuments.” This is EXACTLY what happened to Moses according to the Bible text: From an Egyptian perspective he fell into disgrace when he escaped from Egypt and it is obvious that a person, the heir to the throne, doing this would have everything in terms of monuments, statues, scrolls etc., destroyed. A person doing what Moses did, must, according to Egyptian traditions – be erased from the history.

Tyldesley writes a chapter on Senmut in the interesting review of Hatshepsut (35. J. Tyldesley (1998) Hatchepsut, the Female Pharaoh, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, England.). A number of known, strange and in many cases unclear facts related to Senmut are discussed. In the following table some of these characteristics of Senmut will be commented in relation to the hypothesis that Senmut and Moses were the same person.

----------------------------------------------------------------------
Table 6. A comparsion of Senmuts characteristics from ref 35 (J.. Tyldesley (1998) Hatchepsut, the Female Pharaoh, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, England.) in relation to Moses as described in the Bible texts, mainly the book of Exodus(B), and in some cases in relation to descriptions by Josephus(J).

--------------------------------
SENMUT
"...son of humble parents."

MOSES
Son of Hebrew slaves (B)
--------------------------------

--------------------------------
SENMUT
"Unfortunately, we have no means of knowing when Senmut had started his illustrious royal career."

MOSES
Moses was found in the reeds of the Nile river at the age of three months by the princess at the royal court (B).
-------------------------------

------------------------------
SENMUT
"Driven by a burning desire to shake off his lowly origins..."

MOSES
Lowly origins(slaves)(B).
-----------------------------

----------------------------
SENMUT
"He rose rapidly through the ranks..."

MOSES
Became heir to the throne (B).
---------------------------

---------------------------
SENMUT
"...before quitting the army..."

MOSES
Was a general (J).
---------------------------

---------------------------
SENMUT
"...to join the palace bureaucracy…”

MOSES
Was trained to be pharaoh (B).
----------------------------

----------------------------
SENMUT
"...now took the calculated decision to link his future totally with that of Hatshepsut."

MOSES
His only link to the royal court was via his stepmother, the princess who adopted him (B).
----------------------------

----------------------------
SENMUT
"...he was a close personal friend to the royal family."

MOSES
He was adopted by the royal family (B).
----------------------------

----------------------------
SENMUT
"...most typically holding the infant Nefure in his arms."

MOSES
According to the hypothesis of this book (The Exodus Case) the statues shows Nefure holding Moses in her arms. [Editors note: Not the other way around. Also, it seems quite clear that the person holding the infant reveals the features of that of a female, not a male]
----------------------------

----------------------------
SENMUT
"...sitting with Nefure...held at right angles in his lap, a position hitherto reserved for women nursing children."

MOSES
According to the hypothesis of this book (The Exodus Case) it was Nefure holding Moses, according to Egyptian customs.
-----------------------------

-----------------------------
SENMUT
"Effectively, Senmut was ruler of Egypt".

MOSES
He was to become the ruler and was, before his escape, co-ruler (B).
----------------------------

----------------------------
SENMUT
"The discovery of the shared tomb of Ramose and Hatnofer, Senmut's parents, confirms that Senmut was not of particulary high birth."

MOSES
Moses parents were slaves (B)
----------------------------

----------------------------
SENMUT
"Ramose and Hanofer...did not play a prominent role in public life."

MOSES
Moses parents was not public people in Egypt (B).
-----------------------------

-----------------------------
SENMUT
"Nor is there any evidence to suggest that Senmut ever married..."

MOSES
Moses was not married during his time in Egypt (B, J).
-----------------------------

-----------------------------
SENMUT
"...remain single, he must have been oddity, one of the few..."

MOSES
He married first when he arrived to Midian (B).

[Editors note: It would be logical to assume that Moses was not recorded as being married, for Moses never married during the time he was in Egypt. After he left for Midian, all Egyptian records of him were closed. When he married Zipporah and then returned to Egypt, Zipporah never went with him. Egypt had no reason to record Senmut/Moses as been married]
-------------------------------

-------------------------------
SENMUT
"...evidence that Senmut's immediate family had been struck by sudden catastrophe."

MOSES
Not known. But could definitely be a possibility when Moses escaped from Egypt.
-------------------------------

-------------------------------
SENMUT
"...badly damaged fragment includes the words 'capture' and 'Nubia', is positioned next to images of running soldiers"

MOSES
He was general and organized war campaigns in Nubia (Ethiopia) and he led his army to victory(J)

[Editors note: There is a staggering relationship here that should jolt the senses of anyone who is sincere and honest]
-------------------------------

-------------------------------
SENMUT
Senmut is busy in the palace and related to Nefure and Hatshepsut "dating to the period before Hatshepsut's accession"

MOSES
Moses grew up in the palace (B), adopted by the princess (Nefure) that later became queen Hatshepsut.
--------------------------------

--------------------------------
SENMUT
"...indicating that Senmut was in royal service during the reign of Thutmosis I..."

MOSES
Not known from the Bible, but this is according to the Hypothesis of this book (The Exodus Case). [Editors note: Amazing!]
--------------------------------

--------------------------------
SENMUT
"...Senmut's shrine omits the customary earthly and funerary feasts and includes instead a depiction of Hatshepsut being embraced by the crocodile-headed god..."

MOSES
Moses origin was that he was found in the Nile river (B), where the crocodiles were found. Hatshepsut was probably the childless women that found Moses in the river. Therefore she was in a symbolic way blessed by the god(s) related to the Nile River.

[Editors note: Ah yes, the dots are connecting so nicely. There is most certainly a connection between Hatshepsut and Nefure, and Senmut and Moses afterall]
---------------------------------

---------------------------------
SENMUT
"Senmut was instantly stripped of all his privileges and disappeared in mystery
circumstances."

MOSES
Moses had to escape from Egypt due to his mistake to kill an Egyptian (B). He disappeared to Midian and lost everything he had in Egypt in a few days(B)

[Editors note: This is absolutely astonishing. This is EXACTLY what happens to Moses when he flees for Midian. One day the world will know the truth of these dynasties, and the so called “big-wigs” of Egyptian chronology will see that they manipulated dates to fit their own preconceived ideas]
----------------------------------

----------------------------------
SENMUT
"His unused tombs were desecrated"

MOSES
His tombs were unused since he died in todays Jordan (B). His tombs would definitely be desecrated due to his escape, or betrayal of Egyptian court (B).
-----------------------------------

-----------------------------------
SENMUT
"...his monuments were vandalized and his reliefs and statues were defaced in a determined attempted to erase both the name and memory of Senmut from the history of Egypt."

MOSES
Would be expected due to his betrayal of the Egyptian court (B). The memory of Moses in Egyptian has been lost.
---------------------------------

--------------------------------
SENMUT
"At least twenty-five hard stone statues of Senmut have survived the ravages of time. This is an extraordinarily large number of statues for a private individual..."

MOSES
He was heir to the throne, not a private individual (B).
-------------------------------

------------------------------
SENMUT
"...we must assume that most, if not all, were the gift of the queen..."

MOSES
The princess (who later was queen) was the stepmother of Moses (B).
-----------------------------

-----------------------------
SENMUT
"An intimate relationship with the queen would account for the rapid rise in Senmut’s fortunes…”

MOSES
Intimate in terms of mother - son relation (B) (several hypotheses suggests that their relation was as lovers).
------------------------------

------------------------------
SENMUT

"...being near to the gods was purely a royal prerogative..." (a remark of confusion)

MOSES
He was a part of the royal family B).
-------------------------------

-------------------------------
SENMUT
"...Hereditary Prince..."
(a remark of confusion)

MOSES
Yes (B).
-------------------------------

-------------------------------
SENMUT
“What is surprising is that Senmut was able to acquire any form of hard stone sarcophagus." (only for royalties)

MOSES
He was part of the royal family (B). It was to be expected.
-------------------------------

-------------------------------
SENMUT
"Senmut's tomb was substantially complete when all building work ceased"

MOSES
Moses escaped the country (B) and betrayed the Egyptian royal court.

[Editors note: Why would Egypt want to finish Moses’ tomb after he became such a despised individual? He fled to Midian, and therefore the Egyptians assumed he may never return]
------------------------------

-----------------------------
SENMUT
"...tomb 71 suffered a great deal of damage." "...other damage appears to have been entirely deliberate..."

MOSES
Moses escaped the country (B) and betrayed the Egyptian royal court. To destroy tombs and other objects related to Moses could be expected.
-----------------------------

-----------------------------
SENMUT
"The historical record is tantalizing silent over the matter of Senmut's death."

MOSES
The Egyptian historians did not want to know what happened to Moses, and they had no idea what was going on (B).
------------------------------

------------------------------
SENMUT
"What could have happened to him? The enigma of Senmut's sudden disappearance is which has teased egyptologists for decades..."

MOSES
It is most likely that what the book of Exodus is focused on. The life of Moses (B).

[Editors note: Amazing. And this same scenario of puzzling questions is going to happen time and time again until Egyptologists finally decide to get their act together and take the Bible more seriously]
-------------------------------

-------------------------------
SENMUT
"Many of Senmut's monuments were attacked following his death, when an attempt was made to delete his memory by erasing both his name and his image."

MOSES
Moses has disappeared from the history of Egypt.

[Editors note: An undeniable correlation here! This answers many of our questions, if only we will let it.]
-------------------------------

-------------------------------
SENMUT
"Each of these descriptions has been based on four surviving ink sketches of Senmut's face."
"...high-bridge nose..."
"...aquiline nose..."

MOSES
Moses was adopted, but genetically he was a hebrew (B). Hebrews are in many cases characterized as having an “aquiline nose" which was not a character of Egyptians.
------------------------------


In summary; all these 35 comments on Senmut fits Moses very well!

[Editors note: You cannot, I repeat, CANNOT, deny this overwhelming evidence. Why would so many comments fit so many of the characteristics in the Bible and in Josephuses' writings? Why? It only makes more and more sense why there is "no record" of Moses in Egyptian history. Egyptians were notorious for erasing all information of ANYTHING they despised. Moses was one character they despised, and in addition, would most certainly erase anything to do with the grand Exodus. So many cannot see this, and it truly makes me sad.]

[Editors note: Now is where the references come in which I provided comparing the characteristics of Senmut from Ref 35 in relation to Moses as described in the Bible texts and in many cases in relation to the descriptions by Josephus.]

[Added emphasis for figure: It is also interesting to note that the temple Deir-El Bahri was built by Senmut (Moses) for Hatshepsut (Moses’ stepmother).

[Editors note: And, as many of you may correctly state, it is also said that Thutmosis II was brother and husband to Hatshepsut, but according to this new hypothesis, Thutmosis II was the adopted son (Moses) of Hatshepsut, expressed as “mother’s brother” in Egyptian tradition. According to an Egyptian inscription, Horus (the falcon), Thutmosis II (who is in the upper left) and Hatshepsut (lower left) at Deir El Bahri. According to Egyptian custom, Thutmosis II (Moses) was his “mother’s brother”, and in this way heir to the throne (brother), but was also adopted. “Mother’s brother” which is the meaning of “Senmut”. Although there is and will always be missing links to accurately prove all of this, it unquestionably can be a plausible explanation for this hypothesis.]

The Bible relates that Moses’ biological mother was allowed to breast-feed Moses, very probably she was allowed to bring him up until he was considered old enough to begin his training at the palace.

“And the child grew, and she brought him unto Pharaoh’s daughter, and he became her son. And she called his name Moses…” (Ex. 2:10)

Probably at the same time his Egyptian “maternal grandfather”, Thutmosis I/Amehotep I, became the ruler of all Egypt, which meant that they moved to the palace in Thebes. When Moses was about 18 years old he probably was appointed heir to the throne with his foster mother, Nefure, as regent. Probably from this point in time Nefure was called Hatshepsut and queen. Senmut (Moses) had several titles as “superintendent of the grain stores, of the lands, of the livestock…” (37. F. Tiradritti (1999) The Cairo Museum Master Pieces of Egyptian Art, Thames and Hudson, London, England.).

A women could not embody the gods but could be the wife of a Pharaoh and, if there were no heir, could carry out the functions until an heir had reached a mature age. In Hatshepsut’s temple, Deir El Bahri, there is a wall where the birth of the heir to the throne is portrayed. Certain hypotheses claim that this is the birth of Hatshepsut, which becomes complicated since the child is a boy which one source tries to explain by saying that the one who made the inscription was confused. Another illustration on this wall shows the child in Hatshepsut’s arms.

[Editors note: This confusion would make it very open to interpretation, would it not? The notion that Hatsehepsut was the foster mother of Moses (Senmut who became Thutmosis II) seems to make much more plausible sense]

A number of hypotheses claim that Hatshepsut declared herself to be king, which is based on the inscription “king Hatshepsut Xnem Amen/MaatKaRe”. This claim is that this is Hatshepsut with further additions to her name. “Hatshepsut Xmnem Amen” means “Hatshepsut united with Amen”. “Amen” is the principle god during the 18th dynasty and another name for the son god (Ra). The name means that the “king” with his name is the product of Hatshepsut in union with the god Amen, or the offspring of the union between Hatshepsut and the god Amen.

According to the hypothesis of this chapter (15 in The Exodus Case), this “king”, or rather heir to the throne, was Moses with Hatshepsut as his co-ruler. When someone is appointed heir to the throne, then inscriptions refer to this person as “king”. Moses was very closely connected to Hatshepsut since she was his only link to the royal family. In order to justify his accession to this elevated position it was important to observe protocol at every step so that Moses would be accepted in the existing system (see figure 245).

[Added emphasis for figures: It is said that Senmut had a high-bridge (aquiline)( nose. Note the differences between Hatshepsut’s nose (Moses’ stepmother) and the nose of Moses (Thutmosis II) at the Deir-El Bahri temple in figures 236-240.—Figure 238: Horus (the falcon), Hatshepsut (right) and thutmosis II (left). It is said that Thutmosis II was brother and husband to Hatshepsut. According to the hypothesis of this book, Thutmosis II was the adopted son (Moses) of Hatshepsut, expressed as “mother’s brother” in Egyptian tradition. Figure 239: Hatshepsut (left) and Thutmosis II (right) at Deir-El Bahri. Thutmosis II was probably Moses. Figure 240: Horus (the falcon), Thutmosis II (upper left) and Hatshepsut (lower left) at Deir El Bahri. According to Egyptian custom, Thutmosis II (Moses) was his “mother’s brother” (see the text) and in this way heir to the throne (brother), but was also adopted. “Mother’s brother” which is meaning of “Senmut”. You can see the comparison in the figures which display Hatshepsut and Thutmosis II together, in which Hatshepsut (left) and Thutmosis (right) are at Deir-El Bahri. Thutmosis II was probably Moses. The image cannot be displayed on the web because I am unable to find the inscription on the web.]

[Added emphasis in book: A long wall at Deir-El Bahri illustrates how Hatshepsut touches the hand of a god (=sexual relation). The next illustration shows her being pregnant, followed by a series of illustrations of a small boy growing to become a teenager. This is according to the tradition to explain an adoption. The hypothesis of this study is that Hatshepsut’s son was Moses.

16. WHO WAS THUTMOSIS II?

When Moses is finally appointed co-ruler at the age of 33 years he becomes Thutmosis II. What happens later when Moses is 40 years old is dealt with in chapter 11 and also in chapter 17 and onwards.

Near to Thebes there is a beautiful building called “Deir El Bahri”, which, according to this hypothesis, was the temple Moses built (as architect) for his stepmother Nefure.

Image

Above this building there is a grave (grave number 71) with a statue that was never completely finished. This statue is carved out of the rock and depicts a woman holding a little child. With the hypothesis presented in this study, it is logical that this represents Moses in the arms of his stepmother Nefure.

This building was probably begun when Moses was about 18 years old – it was probably then that he was appointed heir to the throne with Nefure as regent. The names found in this grave are Nefure and Senmut!

Immediately under this grave a chamber has been found in which there are two mummies with the names Hatnofer and Ramose, most likely the Egyptian names for Moses’ biological parents. Here one can see that Moses was given a god-like position in Egyptian society by giving his biological father the name of Ramose, since Ra was the greatest god among the Egyptians.

Figure 245: A suggested system that places all these pharaohs, other people at the royal court, years and events into one system. See the text for comments.
Image
[Editors note: Compare with Table 5 earlier in this study]

Hatnofer was embalmed and received a royal burial, indicated by the fact that she received this place as her burial place and that her death occurred when Moses was between 18 and 40 years old. Since the building was begun when Moses was around 18 years old it is likely that Moses’ mother died when Moses was between 25 and 40 years old. She can definitely not have had this burial after Moses became 40 years old when a sentence of death was pronounced against Moses and he had to flee the country. Moses’ father, Ramose, probably died before Moses was 18 years old since he received a more simple burial and was placed at Deir El Bahri after having been moved from another grave.

Moses’ grave was never finished and no-one was ever buried in it—[Editors note: a very highlighting factor in our hypothesis, since there is no correct mummy for Thutmosis II or Senmut.] One reason may be that the building of an even grander grave was begun when Moses became Thutmosis II at the age of 33 years.

Grave number 353 is interesting because no-one was ever buried in this burial chamber. This was probably the second burial chamber built for Moses and in this case would represent the royal grave. When one goes down into this grave it can be seen that it is unfinished and those who carved the reliefs stopped at a certain point and it looks as though they had just finished their work for the day (figure 247 not found on web)! Nearby there are plans for future work with inscriptions drawn in black texts on the wall. This would only make sense, since Moses never died in Egypt.

It can be noted that in Egyptian graves the dead person was depicted in different situations with his wife and others in the family. In this burial chamber the dead person (Moses) is depicted SOLELY with his parents, Hanofer and Ramose. According to the Bible, Moses had no family of his own when he lived in Egypt.

[Editors note: As we can see, things are starting to make more and more sense, and the puzzle of the Exodus is ever more fitting.]

16.1 Who takes Moses’ place when Moses flees?

Moses flees in tremendous haste from Egypt when he is 40 years old. The question then arises concerning who became Pharaoh when Moses disappeared from the Egyptian leadership and his future place on the throne.

The pharaoh at that time, Amenhotep I, was old and during 22 years had prepared for Moses to take over the throne (see figure 245). What was to happen to this acute situation?

In Memphis there was a man who had been prepared to become co-ruler with Moses when Moses ascended the throne. Probably this man was promoted to become co-ruler with Amenhotep I with the same name (rank/title) as Moses, Thutmosis. Documents show that he received his position in his 22nd year. A co-ruler begins to count his years when he receives the position of co-ruler. This year then becomes the first year. Here we have a person who attains his position in his 22nd year with the same Egyptian name as Moses (Thutmosis)!

It should be noted that the number of years may be counted from when the person becomes heir to the throne, crown prince or co-ruler. Then, when he becomes emperor he begins to count his years again. This leads to two lengths of rule, each as a different “god” authority. This is the reason why Thutmosis III states his reign as 54 years, while Amenhotep II’s is 26-32 years (depending on the source). Thutmosis II, who is the one who takes Moses’ place, is distinguished in that there is no trace of him as he rises in rank but he suddenly becomes co-ruler in his 22nd year (figure 245).

[Editors note: Pay CLOSE attention to the above information! Note how the reigning years are lined up.]

What happened when Moses was suddenly forced to flee the country, was that the Egyptian authorities were obliged to find a replacement who could embody the god Thot (with the title/rank Thutmosis). In order not to break the “line of succession”, the successor assumed the role of Moses and the years he had had in that post. Usually when a member of royalty died the god flew up the heavens and was later reborn in the person who received the same position after a time. In this case no-one died and an immediate transfer was necessary. Everything that belonged to Moses was probably transferred to this new person (Thutmosis) and things continued without a break. This new person is called Thutmosis III. Presumably however, most of the statues said to represent him really represent Moses.

Thutmosis III was said to have reigned for 54 years, however 22 of these years were really the years Moses had in position of Thutmosis. If these 22 years are subtracted from the 54 years, then that makes 32 years in power! In on text it is stated that Thutmosis III “passed away after a rule of 32 (some say 54) years”.

The connection between these years is shown here, otherwise it is very complicated to understand since it is difficult to find a point of reference from which to start counting. This person, who reigned for 32 years as Amenhotep II before he died and was succeeded, was a great and mighty ruler in Egypt, the super power at the same time.

Moses’ foster mother, Hatshepsut, lived for many years after the flight of Moses and is called “queen” on the monuments in the later years of the reign of Amenhotep II, only Cleopatra being more well-known among women in leading positions in Egypt.

16.2. Who does Thutmosis II represent?

The statues and images in ancient Egypt show an amazing portrait-like resemblance. All the people depicted are not idealized, but they often have not just one but several characteristics, both positive and negative. Examples of this are Pharaoh Akhenaton, who had a very peculiar build, others are dwarves, have physical features such as obesity, varying skin color, height and, to say the least, are very different in appearance. Even when army units were made as statuettes, all soldiers were different. This is mentioned as background to the well-founded assumption that artists and sculptors tried to achieve a portrait-like resemblance.

The following observations are speculative but may be interesting to note. The Egyptians, and in particular the leaders have certain traits in common. One such trait is that they have straight noses. Typical Egyptian pharaohs ALL had straight noses!

In this book the hypothesis that Thutmosis II was Moses is stated. So what do the statues of Thutmosis II look like? Moses was not an Egyptian, as far as his genes were concerned, but a Hebrew! Sometimes Hebrews can be described as having more of a hook nose than others. It is interesting that the statue representing Thutmosis II has a more distinct hook nose compared to other statues, as can be seen below:

[Editors note: Notice the Semitic nose:]
Image
[Editors note: This was the closest image of this particular statue that I could find on the web. The book has a lot more close-ups of various Egyptian statues in comparison to a better close-up of this statue of Thutmosis II. It may also be worthy to note that it took Ron Wyatt to enter the Museum of Cairo and take these photos. Traditional Egyptologists have not been so gracious as to provide a SINGLE picture of Thutmosis II’s statue—which leads me to question their integrity in providing all the necessary information for a well-thought out chronology]

[Emphasis from book: Do not forget to take into account that there are notes that Senmut had an aquiline nose, and that Thutmosis II is depicted with a big nose on reliefs. The statue of Thutmosis II shows that he had a hook nose, typical of the Hebrews ]

If this was done purposely by the sculptor with the aim of making the representation of Thutmosis II as portrait-like as possible, then this means that the statue in the figure probably represents Moses.

16.3. Who was the Pharaoh at the time of the Exodus?

When Amenhotep II died, according to the hypothesis in this book, his co-ruler of 29, Thutmosis IV, succeeded as Pharaoh with the pharaonic title Amenhotep III. When Amenhotep III became Pharaoh he appointed his eldest son, although very young, as crown prince as was the custom. The young person who received this role was about 10 years old at the time and we know him as Tutankhamun. Amenhotep II later reigns for about 8 years before the time of the Exodus occurs.

Amenhotep III is interesting from a special point of view. It would seem that he was not intended for the throne of Egypt since he was not the eldest son through the royal mother, who custom decreed should become Pharaoh. In the Sphinx inscription, which can still be seen between the paws of the Sphinx by the pyramids in Giza outside present day Cairo, a remarkable story about Thutmosis IV is told. One day Thutmosis IV fell asleep in the shadow of the Sphinx and dreamt that the sun god came to him, and said that if he removed all the sand from around the Sphinx he would become kin.

This story would not have needed to be told if he had received the right to the throne in a traditional way – by being the eldest son. It may have been that Amenhotep II was also childless, or that for some reason the eldest son could not become Pharaoh. That son could have died young, for instance. For other reasons which we can discuss in chapter 27, we know nonetheless it was very probable Amenhotep III, was the eldest son, while Tutankhamun, heir to the throne after Amenhotep III, was the eldest son of Amenhotep III.

Tutankhamun was co-ruler and in an inscription on the statue of a lion, which Tutankhamun dedicated to the Soleb temple, he calls his father Amenhotep III (37. F. Tiradritti (1999) The Cairo Museum Master Pieces of Eguptian Art, Thames and Hudson, London, England.), which confirms the relation between these two people!

16. 4. Can we Identify the Mummies that have been Found?

There are many mummies in Egypt and there are also problems in connecting a specific mummy to a specific Pharaoh. One example is the mummy that is supposed to be Thutmosis I who reigned for 21 years, according to inscriptions. The following is said about the mummy supposed to belong to Thutmosis I: “However, several eminent physical anthropologists who have seen these X-ray plates have been absolutely convinced that this mummy is that of a young man, perhaps 18 years of age, certainly not over twenty.” (39). Several examples can be given, but there are also explanations.

1. that the name lived on was of primary importance. The worse thing that could happen, was for the name to be removed from the inscriptions etc. It was not so important that it was precisely the right mummy because the body was dead and it was the spirit that needed a body – any body.

2. Many grave robberies (in general most graves have been robbed) have led to the contents of graves being scattered.

3. Many mummies have disappeared to be used as medicines. An ingredient in many European prescriptions in the Middle Ages was part of a mummy as they were held to a have a magical effect.

4. Later pharaohs who restored graves that had been plundered, put in another mummy.

Thus, there are many uncertainties regarding the identity of mummies that have been found. It is probably on the mummies of Amenhotep I, AmenhotepII and Tutankhamun from the 18th dynasty, who are the individuals with whom they are connected. With regard to Tutankhamun, the grave is one of the few which has not been plundered. The mummy of Amenhotep I shows a common genetic defect (protruding teeth) which existed in the family, which means that this mummy can be connected to the 18th dynasty. The other mummies are probably mixed up or placed there at a later date (e.g. after a grave robbery) since they are found in the wrong graves and/or have not received a royal burial.

Moreover, according to the hypothesis of this study, there should not be any mummies of Thutmosis II, who was Moses, nor Amenhotep III, who drowned in the Red Sea. Furthermore, according to the same hypothesis, there should only be one mummy from the name pair Thutmosis/Amenhotep since this was one and the same person (figure 245).

[Editors note: As we can see, there is enough ample reason to believe in this hypothesis. You will notice that even according to traditional Egyptian chronology, the writers are very uncertain and do a lot of speculating. Here is a very good website concerning traditional Egyptian chronology: http://www.crystalinks.com/dynasty18a.html]

[Editors note: I want you to notice the uncertainty of their language. A lot of “probably’s”, “most likely’s” and “could’s” are used extensively, but their basis for doing so is on the premise of mere speculation. We have more reason to come up with our theories based on the archeological discoveries revealing the Exodus event to actually have taken place! We have enough chariot remains (and a some very well identifiable wheels), human bones, horse bones, underwater “land bridge” (which can be discussed later), Solomon’s pillars in commemoration of the crossing, Nuweiba beach, the fact that the Bible describes the Israelites were “shut in by the wilderness” and the “mountains have entangled them”—Nuweiba beach matching the description of the Bible (no such geography exists for the Gulf of Suez), the fact that Goshen was way up north above Suez, and the mere ludicrousness of speculating that the Israelites would have headed south into Egyptian territory instead of just going east into the Sinai Peninsula and following the southern road. The fact that the Bible plainly states that Mt. Sinai is in Saudi Arabia, and Midian is in Saudi Arabia. A pattern is being developed here, and the picture is ever growing clearer.]

[Editors note: Based on these archeological finds, the proposed chronology correlates nicely with what has been found, and explains the many unanswered questions as to how such an Exodus could have occurred.]

[Editors note: To see a very good website describing the proposed chronology, take a look at this link: http://www.aloha.net/~mikesch/moses.htm]

[Editors note: The above link will give you an idea as far as successions are concerned, but the author who put together the table misplaced Amenhotep I as being before Thutmosis I, when in reality, according to the hypothesis presented, Thutmosis I (who was co-regent with Ahmose) became the next Pharaoh as Amenhotep I. Thutmosis I (as co-regent had a daughter named Nefure, and Nefure was the foster mother of the baby Moses she found in the bulrushes. When Thutmosis I became Amenhotep I, Nefure became Hatshepsut (her new name as for co-regent), and it was decided that since there was no male heir, Nefure/Hatshetsup’s adopted son Moses would become co-regent ALONG with her in order for their to successfully be a male replacement after Amenhotep I dies.]

Sources of last 5 “Editors notes” derived from: The Exodus Case, The Mountain of God, and the World Wide Web

[Editors note: During some various discussions on the subject of Moses on a message board on the internet, a particular individual raised an interesting point that might seem to conflict with the idea that Senmut could be Moses. I will quote this individual, and then you may read my response below it:

Quote:
There are some weak but valid parallels - mainly with Josephus (the best one is campaigning in Nubia - but even that is hardly decisive). But also problems. For instance Senmut appears to have joined the bureacracy after his army career. In Josephus' account he flees shortly after the one military campaign he is credited with - although his reasons for doing so are not those given in Exodus. Since Josephus also has Moses marrying an Ethiopian princess during the campaign anything other than a rapid flight to Midian goes quite clearly against the assertion that Senmut never married.


This is totally out of the question. According the Egyptian accounts, Senmut never married and they had every reason to record it thus, simply for the fact that this is all they knew. The accounts record Senmut as never marrying, and we very well know that as long as Moses was in Egypt, he never did marry. However, after Moses fled Egypt, all Egyptian accounts of Moses terminated, thus not recording his marriage to Zipporah, the Midianite. Moses was much older when he returned, and his wife did not come with him or Aaron when they journeyed back to Egypt. Of course Senmut would not have been recorded has being married. As for Josephus’ accounts where Moses marries an Ethiopian princess, bear in mind that not all of Josephus’ accounts are 100% correct. In many cases he seems to contradict the scripture, so his writings are only to be considered as auxiliary information in order to correctly assemble our hypotheses. According to scripture, Moses never married until he landed in Midian, in Saudi Arabia by Mt. Horeb (Sinai). ]


Last edited by Lysimachus on Sun Jul 11, 2004 7:35 pm, edited 4 times in total.

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The Exodus, Egyptian Chronology, & The Bible - Part 2
PostPosted: Sun Jul 04, 2004 7:53 pm 
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The Exodus, Egyptian Chronology, & The Bible

Part 2

24. THE IPUWER PAPYRUS

Are there any other sources concerning these disasters which Egypt experienced? There are several reasons why there should be very little information regarding these events. They happened approximately 3450 years ago and there are not many documents preserved from that time. Furthermore, there were two different sorts of people who could write. Only a limited elite in the country were privileged in being able to write, and this important education was probably given to the oldest son (the firstborn). We know from the biblical texts that all firstborn Egyptians died at the Exodus of the people of Israel. If one was not a scribe because one was firstborn then one was a scribe because one was in service with important people in Egypt anyway.

These important people belonged to the ruling class as administrators or military officers. The entire Egyptian army was its officers and lower ranks that followed the people of Israel went down in the Red Sea. Of those who remained in Egypt the scribes either had no-one for whom to work or, more probably, the country was in complete chaos.

If a country suffers from a great disaster in nature or extensive warfare or something similar, the most important thing is to survive and not to document different events. In addition it may be noted that the whole course of events was hardly something to be proud of. And thus we have a political/historical reason for those in power later on to surround this crises with silence. To these reasons can be added a psychological reason. Very few leaders (perhaps not even one) confess to defeat. We can see this in what happens today, when it is quite clear that a country has lost a war. But for his own people the Leader points to total defeat as a victory.

24.1 An Ancient Papyrus

Although there are many reasons for not finding any documentation of the dramatic course of events in Egypt, nonetheless the question remains whether there is any written record.

There is a document which is probably a description of these events, which Egypt had to experience before the people of Israel were allowed to leave. It is an ancient papyrus document from Egypt. The document was written during the 19th dynasty, the dynasty that took over shortly after the events of the Exodus. The papyrus document is called “Admonitions of Ipuwer” and is 347 cm long (42. M. Lichtheim (1973) Ancient Egyptian Literature, vol. 1, University of California Press, Berkeley, USA.)

The Ipuwer document is one long description of a society in total crises. It has more the character of a poetic description, with many repetitions, than of a news report.

It is debatable whether this is a description of actual events, or merely a fictitious story. One reason that it is said to be fiction, is that the country (Egypt) is suffering total disaster while the slaves have become rich with the wealth of their former owners.

Based on the biblical texts this is exactly what happens when all the slaves (the entire people of Israel) take with them all imaginable riches as gifts from the wealthy Egyptians, while the Egyptian upper class has either perished in the Red Sea or remains at home in a situation that can only be described as one of total disaster. According to the biblical texts precisely this argument, which is put forward as an argument against the text describing an event that really happened, is an argument for this text describing the disaster that befell Egypt.

The bible tells of the wealth of the slaves (the people of Israel) immediately after the disasters in Egypt:

“And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste; for they said, We be all dead men. And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneading-troughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders. And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment: And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians.”

From later events at Mount Sinai we know that this people of slaves had silver, gold cups, finest materials and yarn, precious stones, incense and many other things of great financial value.

[Editors note: Enough gold and other precious jewelry of which they were able to make their golden calves]

24.2. Interesting notes of the Ipuwer Papyrus

The Ipuwer document consists of a 3.5 m long roll of papyrus, with a lamentation over the situation in Egypt. With the exception of several brief sections which have been damaged, the document is intact and readable. In this long document there are a number of lines which are of particular interest (42. M. Lichtheim (1973) Ancient Egyptian Literature, vol. 1, University of California Press, Berkeley, USA.)

1. “Let us go plunder”, “The mayor of the city goes unescorted”.

There is no police force if one can plunder. The military were the police of those days. The Bible describes how the entire army was destroyed.

“There remained not so much as one of them.” (Ex. 14:28)

2. “Foreigners have become people everywhere”.

The people of Israel, who were foreigners to the Egyptians, increased so greatly that for a time Pharaoh had all newborn boys executed in order to reduce the rate of growth.

“And the people multiplied and waxed very mighty.” (Ex. 1:20)

[Editors note: That statement is rather mind-blowing to say the least. It should jolt the senses in anyone that if the Egyptians would say such a thing, that foreigners are people everywhere, it would be logical to conclude that the Biblical narrative of a mass Hebrew population isn’t far off]

3. “Foreigners are skilled in the works of the Delta”.

The people of Israel lived in the delta region, were foreigners and were put to work making bricks, building and in different ways doing work for the Egyptians. (Ex. 5)

4. “What the ancestors foretold has happened”.

Joseph, who was second in command in Egypt approximately 260 years earlier, had foreseen that the people of Israel would leave Egypt and this is also mentioned as a promise from the Lord in several biblical texts. According to the Bible, at his death (which must have been an important, well-known occasion in Egypt considering Joseph’s position there for about 80 years) Joseph says:

“I die: and God will surely visit you, and bring you out of this land unto the land which he sware to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. And Joseph took an oath of the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you, and ye shall carry up my bones from hence. So Joseph died, being an hundred and ten years old: and they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.” (Gen. 50:24-26)

So the Exodus was foretold by the minister of state of Egypt.

[Editors note: You may argue that this idea may be nullified by the fact that we claim Joseph was during the Hyksos period. Unfortunately, I’m forced to disagree with this notion. We have plenty of evidence suggesting that Joseph was Imhotep of Egypt, Vizier under king Djoser of the 3rd dynasty. We believe that Joseph built the Egypt’s first pyramid, the pyramid of Saqqara. Moller goes in great depths proving that the characteristics as well as the writings of Imhotep match up quite well with that of Joseph in the Bible. To read a good article on the Imhotep/Joseph relationship, here is the link: http://www.arkdiscovery.com/joseph.htm . Although this article is quite lengthy and good, Moller does even a better job on expounding on the life of Imhotep (aka~Joseph). I believe the Hyksos are stated as coming after Imhotep/Joseph. Also, based on well-calculated work of years mentioned in the Biblical text, the existence of Imhotep/Joseph tallies well with the 1446 BC Exodus as you will see in upcoming data.]

5. “We don’t know what has happened in the land”.

When the plagues fall on Egypt, Pharaoh’s magicians say to him:

“This is the finger of God” (Ex. 8:19).

By this they probably meant that it was beyond their comprehension and control. Pharaoh and his magicians had good control of all the Egyptian gods otherwise, not least as Pharaoh himself was regarded as an incarnated god (the sun god).

6. “Poor men have become men of wealth”, “Gold, lapis lazuli, silver and turquoise, carnelian, amethyst, ibht-stone … Are strung on the necks of female slaves”, “Gold is lacking”

At the Exodus the poor, enslaved people of Israel took with them a large part of the Egyptians wealth.

[Editors note: Yet more evidence suggestion of the existence of slaves in Egypt]

“And they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment. And the Lord gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent them such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians.” (Ex. 12:35-36)

This people of slaves had silver, gold cups, finest material and yarn, precious stones (including the sorts mentioned by Ipuwer), incense and many other things of high, financial value. This is related in the Bible when the people of Israel had arrived at Mount Sinai (Ex. 25:1-9, 11, 17, 24, 29, 31; 26:1, 6, 7, 11, 14, 19, 25; 28: 15-28 etc.)

[Editors note: Again, this relationship made between the papyrus and the Bible is rather remarkable. Any unbeliever of the word of God should not hesitate to acknowledge that there definitely has to be something here]

7. “The river is blood”

This is an extraordinary comment. Merely stating that the Nile is full of blood, is a statement that is not found in every text. Furthermore it is exactly what the biblical text mentions as one of the hardships which affects Egypt.

“And Moses and Aaron did as the Lord commanded. He lifted up the rod and smote the waters that were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants. And all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood.” (Ex. 7:20)

It is also worthy of note that Ipuwer does not say that the river looked like blood, but was blood. This is exactly as the bible text explain the situation (Ex. 7:20)

[Editors note: This should by far be the most STAGGERING—MIND JOLTING statement, that ANYONE IN THEIR RIGHT MIND WOULD BE ABLE TO SEE THAT THERE IS A CLEAR RELATIONSHIP HERE. “THE RIVER IS BLOOD”, HOW MUCH CLEARER CAN AN INSCRIPTION GET??]

8. “There’s blood everywhere, no shortage of death”.

This comment that there was blood everywhere can have bearing on two things. Firstly, mentioned above, that all the waters was turned to blood according to the biblical text. But it can also refer to the extremely fierce hailstorm which kills everything living that is out-of-doors. The latter is perhaps more likely since it also says in the Ipuwer text that there were large numbers of dead. The Bible tells about the hailstorm:

“And Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven, and the Lord sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along the ground. And the Lord rained hail upon the land of Egypt. So there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail, very grievous, such as there was none like it in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation. And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt all that was in the field, both man and beast.” (Ex. 9:23-25)

9. “Many dead are buried in the river”.

The comment that many were buried in the Nile, may imply that so many people died in the plagues that it was impossible to bury them all, so they were thrown into the Nile. If this was the case, it was a marked deviation from the usual way of handling and burying the dead and must indicate that it was an exceptional situation with a large number of dead. The Bible relates that in just one of the plagues at least one in each family dies (every firstborn). (Ex. 11:4-10)

10. “Exhausted are materials for every kind of craft”, “Lacking are grain, charcoal, irtyw, m3w-wood, nwt-wood, brushwood”, “Trees are felled, branches stripped”

After the disaster in Egypt there is a scarcity of almost everything, this section shows that crops were scarce and raw materials for craftsmen, especially wood (the signs quoted show that a translation has not been found for the specifies that Ipuwer mentions). Trees have fallen down or been knocked down from the trees that remain standing the branches have been knocked off. The Bible tells of similar consequences to the hailstorm mentioned earlier, which was such as seldom seen.

“And the hail smote every herb of the filed and brake every tree of the field.” (Ex. 9:25)

11. “Food is lacking”, “Great hunger and suffering”, “Ladies say , we want to eat”, “Women are barren, none conceive”, “Their bodies suffer in rags”, “The storehouse is bare”.

These quotations from Ipuwer show that there was famine. Food is lacking, people suffer and starve, the stocks are exhausted, so the situation is incredibly difficult. The women may be childless because the children have died, or that starvation has made the women infertile and so unable to have children. This is a probable consequence of the disasters that fall on Egypt, described in the book of Exodus chapters 7 – 12.

12. “See he who slept wifeless found a noblewoman”, “See, noblewomen go hungry”.

This comment that upper class women are hungry and seek the company of the lower classes indicates two things. That which provided their income is no more, and the upper class men are no more. The upper classes in Egypt mainly consisted of soldiers, officers and high-ranking civil servants seconded to Pharaoh. The Bible reports that the entire Egyptian army perished (Ex. 14:26-29), i.e. a large group, specifically of men, disappears (around 250,000) in addition to what the entire population has suffered.

[Editors note: Once again, we see a correlation here of a massive degeneration of the upper class—tallying quite perfect with the idea that a host of Egypt’s finest people are no more]

13. “Scribes are slain, their writers are stolen”, “Their books are destroyed”.

The chaos which prevails in Egypt also implies a hard blow to the whole of Egyptian culture. Scribes are killed and their work scattered in the wind. This may be a reason why, in spite of everything, there is not much written about these disasters. The art of writing was a privileged of the few in high positions of Egypt.

14. “One says ‘woe’ to the place of secrets”, “What shall we do about it? All is ruin!” “Gone is what yesterday was seen”, “See now, the land is deprived of kingship”, “See, all the ranks, they are not in their place, like a heard that roams without a herdsman”.

These secret places which were despised refer to the gods worshipped, the wisemen (priesthood) of that time, the secret rituals, the embalming of the dead and the godlike characters that the Pharaohs represented. That which controlled the whole of Egyptian life, now shows itself incapable of standing firm during the crisis which the country is suffering. The population shows contempt which leads to disorder and chaos. It seems as though the entire leadership of the country has disappeared or is not functioning. The whole of the Ipuwer text is about this chaos, which means that in general nothing functions in Egypt. It must have been something very forceful that could crush the super power of that era so completely.

[Editors note: Wow, this just keeps getting more unbelievable. We have an almost exact description here of what the Bible implies—when the high ranks are not in their places—after Amenhotep III leads his entire army into the Gulf of Aqaba. His remains as well as the remains of the priesthood and a host of other high officials lie at the bottom of the Gulf of Aqaba, which is why we find Egyptian bones, horse bones, horse hooves, cattle bones, hub cabs, chariot wheels, chariot bodies, pieces of wheels, rib cages, and many other identifiable skeletal remains---of which the book shows clear pictures of which I have been unable to find on the net. Absolutely breathtaking as well as spine chilling. There is most certainly a supreme God that caused all of this]

15. “If I knew where god is I would serve him”

This is a strange comment. The Egyptians knew very well where their gods were, in which guise they appeared, which areas of responsibility they had and now one made sacrifices to them. But the Ipuwer text does not ask for these gods. The Egyptians knew that all the people of Israel worshipping the “One God”, and they were obviously no longer in doubt concerning whether it was the gods of Egypt who had the power or whether it was the One God.

The biblical texts tell about all the good that Joseph and the people of Israel did in Egypt. Not least the fact that Joseph saved the whole country of Egypt and gave it great wealth. After a time the Egyptians enslave the people of Israel and later, in spite of being given 10 chances to let the people of Israel leave Egypt, when the biblical texts tell of the anger of the One God expressed in very extraordinary events, they force the people of Israel to stay. They cannot hold them back and soon the Exodus begins, the great migration.

Finally the entire army of the super power perishes when they try to take back a people of slaves led by a man, Moses, who is only equipped with a shepherd’s staff. It is completely understandable that at last the Egyptians realize they have challenged the One God, and their gods were of no help in the struggle. One can really hear the despair of the text. “If I only knew where to find the One God I would serve him.”

24.3 Dating of the Ipuwer Papyrus

Ipuwer was a scribe who most probably documented an event that actually occurred. Since the Ipuwer is said to have worked during the 19th dynasty (42. M. Lichtheim (1973) Ancient Egyptian Literature, vol. 1, University of California Press, Berkeley, USA.), this description many well concern events at the end of the 18th dynasty, which also influenced and probably led to the change which is described as a new dynasty, the 19th dynasty. The event, or events were a disaster for Egypt and their consequences tally well with the descriptions in the Bible.

The Exodus, with the events described in that chapter, occurred around 1446 BC according to the biblical texts, which correspond to the end of the 18th dynasty. The Bible’s chronology is described in chapter 45.

45. WHEN DOES THE EXODUS TAKE PLACE?

In the biblical texts there is a basis on which to draw up a chronology for the periods of time with which this book deals. Important key events can also be verified with other historical sources.

45.1. The Destruction of Jerusalem
The destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BC (48. J.R. Bartlett (1997) Archaeology and Biblical Interpretation, Routledge, London, England.), is the starting point of this chronology. This event is referred to the Bible and is named in a definite way in historical sources. These sources originate from Babylonian documents, with astronomic references to points in time.

Ordinary encyclopedias also give this date for the destruction of Jerusalem. This date is discussed thoroughly in literature. The destruction of Jerusalem occurs, and the captivity in Babylon begins, in the 19th year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, and the 11th year of Zedekiah’s reign (II Kings 25:2).

45.2. The Books of Kings

King Zedekiah was reigning in Jerusalem when Nebuchadnezzar invaded the city, and the incidents occurred which led to the destruction of Jerusalem (II Kings 25:1-17). This is the last event mentioned in chapter 25 of the second book of Kings. Every preceding king is mentioned in the two books of Kings: 47 chapters in all. If one counts back from king Zedekiah through the books of Kings, one comes to the beginning of the first book of Kings, which refers in detail to king Solomon.

Every king in between is specified, especially with regard to the length of his reign. Furthermore, during many years the country was divided into two kingdoms, Israel and Judah respectively. This means that there are two parallel royal lines, which make a number of cross references possible since at regular intervals they refer to each other or to other events. Some things remain uncertain, but these lie within relatively narrow margins (when one refers to the thorough, parallel royal lines), in spite of the length of the period and fact that the events occurred several thousand years ago.

45.3. King Solomon

To the year 586 BC (the destruction of Jerusalem), can be added approximately 384 years (from the royal lines), which gives us approximately 970 BC as the first year of the reign of Solomon. King Solomon reigned for 40 years.

Later, in the first book of Kings a precise comment is made, which relates the reign of king Solomon to the date of the Exodus:

“And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month of Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the LORD.” (I Kings 6:1)

[Editors note: Ah yes! This you say is absolute bogus and has been proved wrong for proving the Exodus date to have occurred in 1446 BC. But as you will see my friends, this verse has more meaning to it than you think. As you will discover throughout the upcoming charts, diagrams, and additional methods for dating, you will see that the 1446 BC date is one of the most unshakable!]

[Additional Emphasis from Book: [i]There is a growing support for an approximate year of 1446 BC for the Exodus compared to other suggestions (25. A.J. Hoerth (1998) Archaeology and The Old Testament, Baker Books, Grand Rapids, USA.). Furthermore, 14 C-dating of remains of Jericho suggests that the destruction to have happened around 1400 BC (27. B.G. Wood (1990) Dating Jericho’s destruction, Biblical Archaeology Review, 5.). The destruction of Jericho would, according to the hypothesis of this book, have occurred approximately 1406 BC.
]

“The house of the Lord” is the temple in Jerusalem. To arrive at the fourth year of king Solomon’s reign, four years are subtracted from approximately 970 BC, giving us approximately 966 BC. That year, states the biblical text (I Kings 6:1), it was exactly 480 years since the Exodus took place. Then approximately 966 can be added to 480, giving approximately 1446 BC.

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Figure 347: A summary of how to calculate the approximate year of the Exodus, according to the biblical texts.

According to this calculation in figure 347, in this book the Exodus is said to have occurred in approximately 1446 BC. There is some uncertainty about this date. Firstly there are four uncertain years (miscount) during the last 2000 years, connected with the birth of Jesus and the founding of Rome respectively. This uncertainty is generally known. With regard to other years given in figure 347, 480 years and 36 years are individual indications (not calculated/worked out). In the presentation of the royal lines, there may be a margin of error of about a decade. This figure is an estimate. With 4 + 10 years presumed uncertainty, there may be a total of around 15 years uncertainty in the years given in figure 347.

45.4. Estimation of the Period in Captivity

When we now know the probable point in time of the Exodus (approx. 1446 BC), the next step is to begin to count from the birth of Abraham.

[Editors note: The following information is crucial for the critics not in favor of placing the Exodus date at 1446 BC. Thus, it is about to be shown that the 1446 BC date can be arrived via different routes of calculation]

We put Abraham’s birth at the year 0, and count forwards according to the biblical texts. Isaac is born when Abraham is 100 years old (Gen. 21:5), Jacob is born when Isaac is 60 (Gen. 25:26) and Joseph is born when Jacob is 91 years old (Gen. 41:46-47; 45:6, 9-10; 47:9). Furthermore, Joseph attains his high position in Egypt when he is 30 years old (Gen. 41:41), and Jacob and h is family move to Egypt when Joseph is 39 years old (Gen. 47:9). As is shown in figure 348, this gives a total period of 290 years.

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Figure 348: A summary of the chronology from Abraham to Joseph, according to the biblical texts.

There are now two time axes which must be linked together. The biblical texts give three different passages which directly indicate a time span from an event with Isaac to the year of the Exodus. The first of those passages is:

“And he said unto Abram, ‘Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not their’s, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years; And also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance.’” (Gen. 15:13-14)

Here Abraham receives a prophecy from the Lord which contains a great deal of information, but the prophecy is couched in general terms. Abraham learns the following:

1. Abraham’s offspring (Isaac and onwards) will live in a foreign country, but it is not said in which foreign country/countries.

2. They will be subject to the laws of that country.

3. They will be slaves, but it is not indicated in which country nor for how long.

4. Later they will leave this country with great possessions.

5. This will, taken all together, happen during a period of about 400 years.

They would not be slaves all the time nor would they be in Egypt all the time and a rounded figure of the length of time is given. They learn of this in general terms and this prophecy lives on among the people of Israel. When Joseph dies in Egypt the people of Israel have to promise on oath to take Joseph’s bones with them when they leave the country later on, although this date is some 190 years in the future.

One can understand the suffering of the people of Israel as slaves in Egypt, and that this became particularly hard when 400 years had passed and still nothing happened. But something was happening. Moses had been in the land of Midian for about 10 years, having fled fro the Egyptian army.

At the Exodus reference is made to this prophecy:

“Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.” (Ex. 12:40-41)

It should be noted that they kept a careful check on prophecy. It was exactly on the day, 430 years later, that everything was fulfilled. A foreign country implies that one lives in some else’s country, i.e. one does not have a country of one’s own. They became slaves and they also received many possessions as gifts from the Egyptians.

The question is to which event the prophecy refers. The event would have happened 430 years before the Exodus, which gives us about the year 1876 BC. In the epistle to the Galatians Paul gives the following interpretation:

“Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man’s covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto. Now to Abraham and his seed is were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ. And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect.” (Gal. 3:15-17)

To summarize, these passages tell us the following:

1. There were 430 years between when the law was given, and the prophecy to Abraham concerning his offspring (Isaac). Here Paul refers to the passage discussed above (Ex. 12:40-41).

2. So what happened with Isaac that these passages refer to? That which happened about 1876 BC?

3. In the biblical text Gen. 22:1-19 this event is dealt with under the heading “Abraham commanded to offer Isaac”. We have touched on this event in chapter 4.

45.5. The “Sacrifice” of Isaac

The biblical text tells us the following:

[i] “And it came to pass after these things, that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham: and he said, Behold, here I am. And he said, Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.

And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son, and clave the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God had told him. Then on the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off.

And Abraham said unto his young men, Abide ye here with the ass; and I and the lad will go yonder and worship, and come again to you. And Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he took the fire in his hand, and a knife; and they went both of them together.

And Isaac spake unto Abraham his father, and said, My father: and he said, Here [am] I, my son. And he said, Behold the fire and the wood: but where is the lamb for a burnt offering? And Abraham said, My son, God will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering: so they went both of them together. And they came to the place which God had told him of; and Abraham built an altar there, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar upon the wood.

And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son. And the angel of the LORD called unto him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham: and he said, Here am I. And he said, Lay not thine hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him: for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son from me.

And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind [him] a ram caught in a thicket by his horns: and Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt offering in the stead of his son. And Abraham called the name of that place Jehovahjireh: as it is said to this day, In the mount of the LORD it shall be seen.

And the angel of the LORD called unto Abraham out of heaven the second time, And said, By myself have I sworn, saith the LORD, for because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son:

That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which [is] upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies; And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice.

So Abraham returned unto his young men, and they rose up and went together to Beersheba; and Abraham dwelt at Beersheba.”
(Gen. 22:1-19)

To summarize, these concern the following:

1. Abraham shows his readiness to sacrifice his son Isaac in a blood sacrifice on Mount Moriah. Human sacrifices were common in the area, but this was only a test for Abraham.

2. On that day 430 years later, a lamb without blemish was to be sacrificed (blood sacrifice) in every family of the people of Israel, to avoid the death of every firstborn. It is the institution of the Jewish Passover, and the beginning of the Exodus. The promise given to Abraham is fulfilled that year, with liberation from slavery, and the covenant given with the stone tablets on Mount Sinai.

3. As Paul explains (Gal.3:15-17), on precisely the same day and the same mountain, slightly more than 1900 years later, Jesus Christ is sacrificed on the summit of Mount Moriah in blood sacrifice with the promise of liberation, and the institution of the new covenant. It is the institution of the Christian Easter.

4. It is on Mount Moriah that Old Jerusalem is built. The site of the temple was up on Mount Moriah. Here the Jews have the western wall as a sacred place, the part of the temple which is still standing today. Here the Muslims have two mosques on the site where the temple stood. Close by, also on Mount Moriah, the Christians have Golgotha (the place of sacrifice) and the empty grave.

It is this event, the “offering” of Isaac, which permeates the whole Bible, and is indicated as the point of reference for these 430 years. We can then, with relative precision, put together these two time axes (figures 347, 348).

45.6. How old was Isaac?

The question then remaining is what age Isaac was when he was to be “sacrificed”.

The following four alternatives spring to mind:

1. Isaac argued logically with his father Abraham. Isaac should then have been at least 10 years old. However there is no specific reference to age.

2. One might speculate that Isaac was as old as Jesus Christ when he was sacrificed at the same place. In that case Isaac was 33 years old, but there is no reference to this age either.

3. Isaac has to carry all the firewood the last part of the way to the place of sacrifice. A relatively large amount of firewood was needed for the sacrifice, so it must have been heavy to carry. This implies that Isaac was physically stronger than Abraham, who carried only the fire and the knife. According to this comment Isaac would have been in his late teens.

4. But there is a reference to another age. In order for the sacrifice of Isaac (which did not need to be carried out) to be righteous, then Isaac should have been adult and responsible for his actions. The Bible gives us several references as to when a man was considered adult and independent.

a) To enlist as a soldier a man had to be 20 years old (Ex. 3:11-15).
b) In a census men old enough to bear arms were counted (Ex. 38:26).
c) The age at which the people could be penalized was 20 (Numb. 14:29, 32:11)

Based on this argument Isaac should have been between 10 and 33 years old. Most probably Isaac was 20 years old, since he would have been responsible for his actions, adult enough to take the consequences of his decisions, and of the age to be penalized when it was a matter of a vicarious sacrifice (punishment for the sins committed by the people).

45.7. Combining the Time Axes

In the link between the two time axes in figures 347 and 348, the age of 20 has therefore been used for the point in time (the “sacrifice” of Isaac) to which the Bible refers. The total time axes can be seen in figure 350.

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Approximately 10 years of uncertainty should be added to the time axes in figure 350, because of the uncertainty about Isaac’s age at the “sacrifice” on Mount Moriah.

Therefore, the total time axes in figure 350 has an estimated uncertainty of about 25 years altogether. In Table 11, details of the calculation of the royal lines of Judah and Israel are shown.

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Image
() co-rules 4 y with Asa. (2) co-rules with Ahab and Ahaziah. (3) co-rules 5 y with Jehoshapaht. (5) co-rules 2 y with Joash. (5) co-rules 13 y with Jehoash. (6) co-rules 25 y with Amaziah.. (7) co-rules 2 y with Pekahiah. (8) co-rules 2 y with Uzziah. (9) co-rules 8 y with Jotham. (10) co-rules 3 y with Ahaz.
(see also 49. E.R. Thiele (1951) The Mysterious Numbers of Hebrew Kings, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA)

[Editors note: I was unable to bloat this last image any bigger due to its length for some reason, but it is the continuation of Table 11]

27. WHO DIED IN EGYPT?

The Bible text is clear regarding those who died in Egypt. That night before the Exodus began, all the firstborn died, i.e. the eldest in each family. The Bible is even more specific when it states:

“And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.” (Ex. 12:29)

The Pharaoh who sat on the throne was not the firstborn as he survived that night (Ex. 12:30-32). According to the hypothesis in chapter 15 this Pharaoh was Amenhotep III. The son, the firstborn son of Amenhotep III was Tutankhamen, which among other things is confirmed by an inscription on the statue of a lion dedicated to the Soleb temple (37. F. Tiradritti (1999) The Cairo Museum Master Pieces of Egyptian Art, Thames and Hudson, London, England.)

27.1 The Death of Tutankhamen

Tutankhamen is remarkable in that one cannot understand how such a young heir to the throne (about 18 years old), who probably had achieved nothing of importance since he had not yet ascended the throne, received such an unprecedented burial. Book after book describes the discovery of the grave in 1922 and all the treasures, often gilded, which were in the grave. The main reason for all the attention given to Tutankhamun is that every grave has been robbed down through the years just because they contained so many treasures, or alternatively because successors have taken measures to reduce the importance of their predecessors and increase their own importance. (Figure 918)

So the first comment is that Tutankhamen’s grave probably does not differ greatly from other graves of members of the reigning family, but it distinguishes itself by not having been robbed. That so much notice is taken of Tutankhamen has nothing to do with political achievement, a long reign, wars of conquest or anything similar but the fact that his grave is one of the few that has not been plundered and that it is so lavishly decorated.

According to the hypothesis in this chapter, the scenario which takes place is that Amenhotep III ruled over a great, prosperous and mighty Egypt. As soon as he comes to power, perhaps already when he was still heir to the throne, building is begun on his burial chamber. The Pharaoh’s burial chambers with their lavish contents took a long time to finish, and building a burial chamber was one of the important measures a Pharaoh took on coming to power.

Amenhotep III, who reigned when things were flourishing, spent a lot on his intended grave and prepared everything well.

Then the events described as the Exodus in this book, the departure of the people of Israel, occur. On the last night all the firstborn die, including Amenhotep’s firstborn son Tutankhamen (Ex. 12:29). Pharaoh himself sets off with his entire army to pursue the enslaved people of Israel and bring them back. When the whole of the Egyptian army has almost caught up with the people of Israel, it drowns in the Red Sea and there is not a single survivor, not even Amenhotep III who was leading his army (Ex. 14:26-28).

The Egyptian court then faces a situation where the reigning Pharaoh has drowned and disappeared, so cannot be buried in his lavishly prepared grave. On the other hand, the body of the heir to the throne is there, Tutankhamen for whom probably no grave has been prepared. It would then be easy to decide to let Tutankhamen have his father’s grave. All that is personal to Tutankhamen is his own death mask and sarcophagus. This could be a probable explanation of the death of Tutankhamen and why he received such a lavish burial chamber. It is known that Tutankhamen was buried in a tomb that did not belong to him. One reference states the following: “The young king (Tutankhamen), authors comment) was buried in the tomb originally prepared for Ay in the Valley of Kings” (37. F. Tiradritti (1999) The Cairo Museum Master Pieces of Egyptian Art, Thames and Hudson, London, England.), although no evidence mentions Ay specifically.

[Editors note: This makes a great deal of sense. Amenhotep III was noted as one of the greatest Pharaohs in Egyptian history, not Tutankhamen. Since there are inscriptions supporting the idea that Amenhotep III might have been his father, it seems to make a great deal of sense that the tom of which Tutankhamen was buried was originally made for the great Pharaoh Amenhotep III. So this, in order to “fill in the slot”, the only body, the body of Tutankhamen was put in place of his father’s, since his father drowned in the Red Sea.]

Tutankhamen’s own deathmask is impressive, made of pure gold with turquoise insets and weighing about 10.3 kg. this beautiful handicraft is something of a modern symbol for Egypt (figure 280) [Editors note: figure not available]

It is easy to understand that there was chaos at court. Both Pharaoh Amenhotep III and Tutankhamen, the heir to the throne, died within a couple of weeks.

27.2. What Happened in Egypt?

Can this scenario be verified in any way? Firstly it can be noted that the successors to the throne deviated from the usual pattern.

[Editors note: deviated from usual pattern in that the pattern of naming pharaohs (Thutmosis/Amenhotep) changed, for these gods (Thot and Amen) were now shown to be powerless by Moses.]

Instead of members of the reigning family inheriting the throne, it is Ay, an older army officer and counselor accedes as ruler. After a short time the 18th dynasty comes to an end. This in itself is a sign of the chaos there must have been in Egypt in connection with the Exodus. It is said that Ay hastily married Tutankhamen’s wife, Ankhesenamun, so hastily that he is Pharaoh at the burial of Tutankhamun.--- (42. M. Lichtheim (1973) Ancient Egyptian Literature, vol. 1, University of California Press, Berkeley, USA.)

[Editors note: Interesting, you would think that some member of the royal family of Amenhotep III would ascend the throne, but NO! Ay, an old army officer takes over? Does this not indicate a sign of chaos? But say, what sign of chaos of this sort is there during Rameses II (or Shishak)? As we can see, the grand picture here is getting better, and the Bible is ever becoming more real.]

27.3. When did it all happen?

The biblical text specifies the exact date of the Exodus. It was the 14th day of the month when the people of Israel still celebrate their “pesach”.

Tutankhamen dies during the night following this day. This date is interesting, since it indicates so precisely a day in spring. Tutankhamen was decorated in many ways, among others with sophisticated and expensive wreathes of flowers. These wreathes were made from fresh plants and flowers as the leaves and parts of the plants have been bent in such a way that only fresh plants can be bent.

Tutankhamen’s death was unexpected so it may be surmised that the floral wreathes were made in connection with his death. By determining the species of the flowers and fruits these wreathes were made of, and with information about when these flowers bloomed and bore fruit, it is possible to date the death and/or interment as being between the middle of March and the end of April (44. F.N. Hepper (1990) Pharaoh’s Flowers, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, England.).

This strongly supports the hypothesis that Tutankhamen died at a time of year that was exactly, or at least very close to, the time of year of the Exodus.

27.4 A Strange Letter

The person who bore the royal blood, the inheritance, was the royal wife of Amenhotep III, the Pharaoh who was drowned in the Red Sea, and who was the mother of the heir to the throne, Tutankhamen. There is a letter that is preserved in the so-called Tel-Amarna letters (61. J.B. Pritchard (1969) Ancient Near Eastern Texts, Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA.) sent by this widow of the Pharaoh to the Hittite king Suppiluliumas and preserved by the son of the later in an inscription:

"...When the people of Misra (Egypt, authors comment) learned the destruction of Amqa, they were afraid, for to make matters worse their master, Bibhuria had just died and the widowed queen of Egypt sent an ambassador to my father and wrote to him these terms:

My husband is dead and I have no son. People say that you have many sons. If you send me one of your sons he will become my husband for it is repugnant to me to take one of my servants to husband. When my father learned this, he called together the council of the great: Since the most ancient times such a thing has never happened before.

He decided to send Hattu-Zittish, the chamberlain, Go, bring me information worthy of belief; While Hattu-Zittish was absent on the soil of Egypt, my father vanquished the city of Karchemish…. The ambassador of Egypt, the lord Hanis, came to him. Because my father had instructed Hattu_Zittish when he went to the country of Egypt as follows: Perhaps they have a prince they may be trying to deceive me and do not really want one of my sons to reign over them; the Egyptian queen answered my father in a letter in these words;

Why do you say they are trying to deceive me? If I had a son, should I write to a foreign country in a manner humiliating to me and to my country? You do not believe me and you even say so to me! He who was my husband is dad and I have no son. Should I then perhaps take one of my servants and make him my husband? I have written to no other country, I have written to you…”


[Editors note: Hmmm…this letter sounds interesting indeed, does it not? Why would both her husband and son be no more so mysteriously? Why does she not mention taking another officer or high official as her husband? Why a servant?]

Finally Suppiluliumas believes her and sends a son, it is not known what happened to him.

This letter is remarkable because Pharaoh Amenhotep III’s widow says that her husband is dead (drowned in the Red Sea), she has no son (Tutankhamun died at the Exodus), and there are only servents left in the country (leaders, ministers, priests, officers drowned in the Red Sea). Bibhuria is probably a linguistic variation among the Hittites for “Neb-maat-Re”, one of the names of Amenhotep III. Further, this excludes Tiy as being the widow since she had another son, Akhenaten.

[Editors note: Bear in mind that it is of utmost priority for Egypt to keep their great disaster a secret to the world. Should the Hittites, or any other Canaanites find out of the great catastrophe that struck Egypt during the Exodus (loss of firstborn and whole army), Egypt would become in great danger of invasion, for foreign nations might see this as “an opportunity to strike”. But, as we all know, Egypt did a marvelous job at keeping secrets. This is why Egyptologists today still cannot agree on many aspects of Egyptian history, because so many inscriptions were chiseled out, for Egyptians were known to record only their victories and accomplishments, but when it came to disasters, Egypt would hide as much of this information as they could.]

27.5. The Threat From the Hittites

At this period in time, the Hittites are a potential threat to Egypt. There is every reason in the world for Egypt to hide for as long as possible the fact that the army has been destroyed. The countries existed in relative isolation from each other, it was desert land between them and there were still border posts guarding the borders. After a time, when there is a risk that the truth will leak out that there is no longer a great and mighty army, then this letter can be an invitation to create an alliance (through marriage) with the Hittites before they fully realize what has happened. Obviously the Hittites are surprised (“nothing like this has ever happened before”) about the letter and send a messenger to look into the matter.

At the same time this is happening, the cities in Palestine which belong to Egypt are having problems. The Tel-Amarna letters show that among other things these cities were threatened by the Hittites. They begged the Pharaoh in Egypt to send troops, but as it says in one of the letters written during this period, “no help came”. The situation was become untenable and Egypt was still incapable of sending troops. A strong Egypt with its mighty army could easily have supported its subject cities in Palestine.

[Editors note: So, would you not find it rather suspicious that it is at this point in time (SOON AFTER THE EXODUS) that Egypt does not come to the aid of their allies, the Palestinians?! It was because Egypt was crippled, and it wouldn’t be until Rameses II that Egypt would climb back up to one final height, and then crumble again.]

27.5. In Summary

Altogether these events show that something dramatic occurred in Egypt at this time. These events were the beginning of the end of the 18th dynasty and include several different incidents which can be connected with each other; letters which state that only servants are left in the country; the time of and reason for Tutankhamun’s death; and the absence of help for the cities subject to Egypt. Similarities to these events described in the Ipuwer document are striking (chapter 24).

”Who formerly could have plundered Tunip without being plundered by
Thutmose III? …and there is no help for us. For 20 years we have been sending to our lord the king, the king of Egypt; but there has not come to us a word – no, not one!” (17. B. Mertz (1996) Temples, Tombs and Hieroglyphs, Michael O’Mara Books Ltd, London, England.)

After the powerful Thutmose something happened that destroyed the super power of Egypt and left the colonies without support.
]

[Editors note: Friends, there is enough evidence to suggest that the grand Exodus did actually happen, and that it happened according to scripture, in 1446 BC. Enough archeological data as with as meticulous calculations lead to nothing more than that these events actually happened around 1400+ BC. The dots are slowly being connected, and things are beginning to make sense as never before. Scientists around the world are beginning to realize that there was more to Ron Wyatt’s discoveries than they had originally supposed. Ron Wyatt is passed away, and his discoveries are only living on, but are IMPROVING! Even various enemies of Wyatt are coming to the same conclusion. Once Mollers’ new series are aired on Television for the first time (since they have not been shown yet), the world will begin to start seeing things in a new light they never before viewed in. Regardless of the credentials any of these scientists have, the data is well documented and presented, and this cannot be denied. If a pigmy were to show me the world was flat, and he provided me ample reason as to why he believed so, I would be obliged to give him a fair hearing. But it is encouraging to know that more and more scientists around the world are beginning to acknowledge the compelling evidence associated with the Exodus.]


Last edited by Lysimachus on Sun Jul 11, 2004 7:41 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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PostPosted: Sun Jul 04, 2004 9:16 pm 
Pharaoh
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Location: Rome, Georgia USA
My Dear Lysimachus, Abram Back in Time is no slicing and dicing. It logically and naturally flows from the Abram in the 1st Dynasty, to Joseph in the 3rd Dynasty, to Moses in the 6th Dynasty to the Conquest of Canaan at the end of EBA. To the pushing out of Canaanites into the Canaanite city Avaris in the Nile Delta to these people becoming the Hyksos of the 15th-17th Dynasty. To Deborah in the early mid- 18th Dynasty to David, and Solomon in the late 18th Dynasty. To Ramesses II as Shishak, to Merenptah settleling the civil war that sees the establishment of the Israelite royal house of Ormi (1st Kings 16: 16-23.) To Ramesses III settling his 'Sea Peoples' in coastal Palestine in the reign of Judahs King Jehoram. To the real King of Hittite being the King of Hittite that is spoken of in 2nd Kings 7:6. (Not one of the neo-Hittite Kings that are currently considered to be... when in reality they are not neo-Hittites to anyone other than Assyria's Tiglath Pileser I and modern Biblical scholars who insist on Shoshenq I as Shishak.

What you don't seem to understand... is there a lot more to scripture recounting of Jewish history than just the Exodus. The above is a scripturally intact, inspired alignment of the Bible and known Egyptian history. Despite your pronouncement that it is slicing and dicing, other than 2nd Kings 6:1 it is intact both scripture and Egyptian history. Can you say this about yours where we must relearn all Egyptian history in order to understand the wonder of the Lord? :roll:

As for your forthcoming personality tests and comparisons... it is a branch of sociology, it works best on living people not the dead. When applied to the dead it is simply no more or less than the opinion of the tester.

i doubt sincerely that you ever heard of Sextus Julius Africanus before coming to this board and discussions with me. George Syncellus had a great deal of respect for this early chronolographer of and for the Christian faith. One reason why he is the great unknown in literalists circles, Lysimachus, is because knowledge of him and his contributions today. Would and does sincerely threaten literalists position of a YEC. I do hope you visit my Darwin talk board you might enjoy battling with us there.

Again i hope you a speedy recovery with your leg. i rejoice to hear that you are healing so well. :) Don't expect much more from me on your posts Seen it, heard it, considered it and dismissed it as nonpertient, distortive of both scripture, history and disrespectful to God and his works upon this earth. My own reseach where i know my sources, their background, their purpose in writing and my checks are far more convincing to me. But thank you for your time and effort.

Oh yes, for consideration of Senmut please see the thread Hatshepsut's man. You might learn some real facts about that interesting man. That isn't a 3000 year old postmortem sociology test. :) have a great day!

See for me i can say a lot in a short post :wink:


Last edited by Sekhmet on Sun Jul 04, 2004 9:36 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Sun Jul 04, 2004 9:32 pm 
Pharaoh
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Joined:Thu Feb 19, 2004 11:24 pm
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Location: Rome, Georgia USA
For those of you really interested in the origin of the distortions caused by the chronology used by both Christians and Egyptian scholars in aligning the Bible with Egyptian history. Please read up on Julius Sextus Africanus there are a few and i mean a very few good websites on him. But here is tip for a really good read on this early and important chronolographer do i like i do go to Amazon.com and under books do a search on him and early christian chronology when the search comes up and it will... read the available extracts Amazon offers in hopes of selling you the book :) a great way to save money! While learning even more!


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