Sekmet...so where is the proof that moses existed at the end of the Old Kingdom????
Hi again Horemheb, if your looking for a certain Moses, Egyptianology hasn't gotten that far, yet. However, the 6th dynasty does contain more accounts of agreement with the Bible than any other period. But before i get into them.
Let me, please start with the 3rd dynasty.
Donald Redford writes on pg. 51 of Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, "evidence now chronicles the influx of increasing numbers of foreigners from the end of the 3rd Dynasty. (i bring this up Horemheb because if your going to have an Exodus you got to have the folks show up for it.) The end of the 3rd Dynasty is some 430 prior to the end of the Old Kingdom.
Imhotep, 3rd Dynasty influences Egypt for well over 430 years and is still today the patron of the Egyptian Physicians Association.
Djoser, Imhotep's most important Pharaoh suffered a famine of 7 years. According to Egyptian texts, it was Imhotep that solved the problem of the famine.
The first use of the term "Greatest of Seers" begins during the reign of Djoser's father Pharaoh Khasekhemwy. Imhotep holds this title during his lifetime.
The 3rd Dynasty lasted for just about 75 years. Pharaoh Snefnu claims that as a child he knew Imhotep. Joseph lived to the age of 110 years. Imhotep lived to an extreme old age as well.
There is more but you want Moses, not Joseph so i will jump on to the 6th dynasty.
There is a disruption in the traditional royal house at the end of the 5th Dynasty. Wenis, Teti are new additions into the royal house. Scripture tells us there arise a Pharaoh that did not know Joseph.
Scripture tells us that Pharaoh during the time of Moses' birth was interested in childbirth.
In Nicolas Grimal's, A History of Ancient Egypt, pg. 81 we learn. That Pharaoh Teti, patronized the Goddess Hathor, one of Egypt's most important Goddess of fertility and childbirth, more so than any other Pharaoh. Teti, starts oppression of Asiatics, his son Pepy I continues it. One of the main instrument of this oppression is Lord Weni, who leads 5 separate campaigns into Egypt's northeastern borders.
Expeditions of Egyptians range from Nubia to Canaan.
Pharaoh Pepy I, charges his first Queen Were-tyames with a crime so horrible he prevents a public or legal trial and has Lord Weni act as Judge, and jury against the Queen, daughter of Pharaoh. Grimal claims that her son was banished as well. However i can find no supporting documentation that she had a son, nor that he was banished.
Scripture tells us that there are "men that want Moses dead". Egyptology tells us that after Queen Were-tyames disappears, Pepy I marries the daughters of one Lord Khuni of Abydene. Lord Khuni also has a son Djau. When Pepy I dies his oldest son Menkaurf becomes Pharaoh, Djau is co-regent with his sister.
Old faithful Lord Weni records the horrific amount of labor he achieves for the building glory of Pharaoh Menkaurf. (i could copy it for you here but if you go to Google and do a search for Lord Weni, you can read for yourself his record of service to Pharaoh's Teti, Pepy I and Menkaurf.) So we have the men that want Moses dead, Pepy I, Khuni, Djau, Weni, and Menkaurf.
When Pepy II succeeds his older brother upon the throne again it is Djau that is co-regent again with his sister. When Djau dies, it is again safe for Moses to return to Egypt. It is a forty year period of his exile. This takes place from Pepy I to Pepy II, a time frame that is easily incorporated into these rulers.
While Pepy II is granted by Manetho as having a rule of 94 years, there are no attestments of his rule past his 67th year. When Pepy II did die, he left Egypt without male issue, (a heir), Egypt was depopulated, and left as a ruin. Just as Scripture details Egypt when Moses leads his people out of Egypt.
Canaan falls to destruction of its many great cities at about the same time of Egypt's collapse.
The First Intermediate Period sees the first development of Lamentation literature. The pyprus of Ipuwer dates to this period and is accepted that it is actually detailing the end of the 6th Dynasty. The Ermitage Papyrus does the same, but from the point of view of being a prophecy and dates to the Middle Kingdom.
There is another aspect of this period that is often ignored but shouldn't. What was happening in Mesopotamia? Just prior to the time of Teti of Egypt we find that Sargon the Great, a Semitic, has just risen to power creating the first Mesopotamian Empire of Agarde. He started off as a servant to the King of Kish, overthrew the King of Kish and was off. He also has another tale that ties in with Moses. Sargon's mother abandoned him to a basket on the water. Moses' mother in Egypt would have known that story.
When we see what Sargon did, just prior to the asscention of Teti to the Egyptian throne, the fact that the Hebrews (AKA Asiatics) by this time had a history of some 400 years in Egypt. The oppression of Teti, Pepy I, and Menkaurf makes far more sense. Than just being nasty evil old men.
Other less easily placed supporting facts.
The funerary towns of Teti, and Pepy I, are located at Tell Basta within an easy 5K from the much later Pi-Ramesses.
Pepy II court was riddled with rumors of homosexuality.
The artistic skill during this time period was one of Egypt's greatest especially in 3D sculpture in the round.
The story of Sinuhe, that many Egyptianologists claim is the prototype of Moses own story. Dates to the 12th Dynasty that has been able to return Egypt to a power not realized since the beginning of the 6th Dynasty. When we allow archaeological facts to set the timeline of Biblical events and people we can see that Sinuhe's story is an Egyptian attempt to soothe fears of the Hebrews now entrenched in Canaan as the 12th Dynasty begins to reassert Egyptian policy over Canaan.
If you or anyone else would like sources for any statement made in this post without reference source stated. Please PM me and i will be more than happy to provide it. All statements are made from authoritive sources they are not included due to the length of post and time.
Horemheb the name is Sekhmet not Sekmet
But what i want really to say is again. It isn't a myth, it is the lack of correct placement in the correct time period that allows some folks to think the stories of the Bible are myths. You have a great day Horemheb