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Women Pharaohs
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PostPosted: Sun Oct 17, 2004 12:27 pm 
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How many women actually ruled Egypt independently, not including regents. Many people disagree over certain rulers. For example some argue that Tausret didn't rule independently at the end of the 19th Dynasty or that she wasn't crowned as Pharaoh. How many women were crowned Pharaoh?


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PostPosted: Sun Oct 17, 2004 6:36 pm 
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Maybe we should start a sort of list of all female rulers, with some sort of coding system. For example, if there's stars beside the name, it means that she ruled independantly, and something else could mean that she was a co-regent or something...

I'll start with the obvious:

***Hatshepsut***


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PostPosted: Mon Oct 18, 2004 11:07 am 
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Perhaps a bracket either side could be a co-regent.

(Tausret)
(Nefertiti) Perhaps!


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PostPosted: Tue Oct 19, 2004 12:54 pm 
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Oh! I did a project on this last year. I think the accepted number of female pharaoh's, who ruled in their own right, as accepted by the scholarly community is 4.

-Nitokerty (6th dynasty?)
-Sobekneferu (12th Dynasty)
-Hatsheptsut
-Tauseret


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PostPosted: Tue Oct 19, 2004 2:11 pm 
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Did all of them go through the formal coronation then?


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PostPosted: Wed Oct 20, 2004 11:46 am 
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The last 3 are, but little is known about Nitokerty. They assumed she reigned by herself from a royal/offical looking tablet with her name, or something like that. The book I got the info from wasn't really specific. If you want to check it out, it's overall a pretty informative book. Silent Images, by Dr. Zahi Hawass.


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PostPosted: Wed Oct 20, 2004 1:38 pm 
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Thankyou for that. Has anyone got any interesting information about Sobekneferu? I know next to nothing about the whole time period she comes under.


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PostPosted: Thu Oct 21, 2004 7:37 am 
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I found this information doing a search on Google.

The Middle Kingdom
Dynasties 12-14
c. 1991 - 1640 BC (c. 470 years)

By Ottar Vendel



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Dynasty 12
1991 - 1783 BC (208 years)



This dynasty should bring back the values from the Old Kingdom with
divine kingship, but all in the minds of the pharaohs themselves.
Its glory lies in the fact that the rulers were able leaders
developing agricultural methods and exploiting
the Fayum. They all tried to imitate the
great pharaohs from the passed.
Egypt was prosperous and
the era saw at least
seven more
pyramids.


Sobeknefru


Sobeknefru
Sobeknefru (sometimes also Neferusobek) was most likely a daughter of Amenemhet III and her name (within a cartouche right) means "Beautiful of the god Sobek". She is mentioned in Manetho's text, in the Karnak and Sakkara lists but not noted in the canon from Abydos temple wall. She was probably the sister or half sister to her husband Amenemhet IV whose title and occupation she took over shortly after his death.
Often her name appears with the addition Shedty and this can indicate that she was involved in the creation of a religious centre in Fayum called Shedet.
This cult praised the crocodile god Sobek and it's possible, though not confirmed, that the priests of this old local deity were the ones who backed her up as a national leader though their power (and hers) obviously was limited. This would also explain her break of tradition by taking a crocodile name as a pharaoh for the first time.
Sobeknefru reconstructed

The economic importance of Fayum had been increased since much land for cultivation had been reclaimed from the marshes during the reigns of several kings.
Physical evidence from her reign is scant but inscriptions at the second cataract, a cylinder seal with her names and texts associating her with her father, have survived. She completed her fathers mortuary temple where her name appears many times (and that of Amenemhat IV - not at all).
An apparent remain are three fragmentary life-size basalt statues of her found at the site Tell el Dab'a (former Avaris) in the eastern delta. One of them is shown in the picture left with a fictive addition giving an impression of what it once might have looked like. Note that the statue fragment has breasts and does not have a false beard and thus once clearly showed Sobeknefru as a real female pharaoh.
Her tomb has not been found, but there is a hardly begun pyramid at Mazghuna North that might be a remnant of hers.
If this is the case she seems to have left the Fayum area for the traditional administrative and religious centres up north like Memphis and Heliopolis. Where she actually had her residence is not known.
So far (year 2002) no depiction of her has appeared in paintings or 3D form. A possible exception is a small statue from the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York mentioned in an article edited by C.J. Eyre published in: Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, nr. 82 (p 227-236). It is an intact depiction of a female pharaoh with a unusual crown on her head and wearing a Hebsed cloak. The assumption that it is of her is made purely on stylistic grounds.
Her reign concluded the 12th dynasty, a prosperous period in Egyptian history.
She was one of very few women (probably one of two in 3000 years) to achieve the rank of pharaoh over Egypt.


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PostPosted: Wed Aug 17, 2005 7:17 am 
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Originally posted by Ankhesenpa'aten

Quote:
Oh! I did a project on this last year. I think the accepted number of female pharaoh's, who ruled in their own right, as accepted by the scholarly community is 4.


What about all the Ptolemaic queen/pharaohs? Cleopatra ;, I would say Regent, Cleopatra II; pharaoh, Cleopatra III; pharaoh, Cleopatra Berencie III; Pharaoh, Cleopatra VII; haraoh, Berenice II; regent, Berenice IV; Pharaoh.

If were assigning a grading system, we could assign Khentkawes and Meritates as regents?


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PostPosted: Tue Dec 05, 2006 9:25 am 
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There is also Queen Ahhotep who ruled while Ahmose was a child and fought the Hyksos (http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/qahhotepI.html) and Queen Ahmose Nefertari who was also a regent around the same period (http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/qahmosenefertari.html)


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PostPosted: Fri May 11, 2007 4:06 am 
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Yes but aahotep was a regent although a very powerful one while her son was away fighting the Hyksos.


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PostPosted: Fri May 11, 2007 7:37 am 
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As far as I know, only three--Hapshepsut, Sobekneferu and Cleopatra VII-- were actually crowned Pharaoh. All of the others mentioned were either regents or co-rulers.


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PostPosted: Tue May 15, 2007 5:17 am 
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We talk a lot about 'crowned pharaohs' but what records do we actually have that coronations for these women took place? I'm more comfortable talking about whether or not we know they actually held power as pharaoh, coronation or not. I.e. Do we have any art, wall paintings, statues etc showing them as pharaohs as opposed to queens? Apart from Hatshepsut, Sobeknefru, Nitocris of the 6th Dynasty appears to have held power but this may be based on assumption as opposed to any real evidence. If anyone knows of any please let us know. Then Twosret.
A lot of the Ptolemaic women held power as pharaoh. More so than just Cleoptra VII as by convention a brother/sister/husband/wife combination ruled jointly together. Cleoptara II ruled as Philometra Soteira (Mother-Loving Savior) as did her daughter Cleopatra III who was left the throne by her husband to rule with whichever of their sons she chose. Then there is Cleopatra-Berenice III, Berenice IV, all who ruled as pharaohs.


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